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全国2009年4月高等教育自学考试英语(二)试卷
 
出自:  发布时间:2010年01月29日

Ⅰ.Vocabulary and Structure (10 points,1 point for each item)

从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。

1.Not until quite recently that language was closely related to culture.

A.I realized     B.I did realize

C.had I realized   D.did I realize 【】

2.He has been widely exposed the public on television.

A.on   B.in   C.for   D.to 【】

3. The quality of life, especially as by the individual, varies with cultures.

A.seen   B.seeing   C.to see   D.to be seen 【】

4.In the United States, eggs are sold the dozen.

A.for   B.with   C.by   D.in 【】

5. It is just as foolish to say that one should never drink orange juice and milk together it is to say that one should never drink water and beer together.

A.when   B.as   C.while   D.since 【】

6.When you hear the tape, it will profound questions about what is happening in our world with juvenile and our society.

A.cause   B.raise   C.draw   D.make 【】

7. Wait till you get your into the work, you will find it very interesting.

A.teeth   B.face   C.mouth   D.ear 【】

8.There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives the rewards of real activity.

A.on   B.in   C.as   D.for 【】

9.But that she saw it with her own eyes, she it.

A.could not believe   B.could not have believed      C.did not believe    D.believe 【】

10.After many days of relaxation, he looks as fresh as .

A.water   B.desk   C.paint   D.tree 【】

Ⅱ.Cloze Test(10 points, 1 point for each item)

下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案。

In the English educational system, students  11  three very important examinations. The first is the eleven  plus, which is taken at the age of eleven or a little past. At one time the ability or aptitude  12  on the eleven  plus would have determined if a child stayed in school. Now, however, all children continue in “ comprehensive ” schools, and the eleven-plus determines which courses of study the child will follow. At the  13  of fifteen or sixteen, the students are tested for the Ordinary Level of the General Certificate of Education. This examination  14  a wide range of subjects; once students have passed this exam, they are allowed to specialize,  15  two thirds or more of their courses will be  16  physics, chemistry, classical languages, or whatever they wish to study  17  greater length. The final examination, at eighteen, covers only the content of the special subjects. Even at the universities, students study only in their  18  area, and very few students ever venture outside that subject again; 19  a real sense, the English boy or girl is a specialist from the age of fifteen. This is supposed to be a  20  description about English educational system.

11. A.write    B. take     C. make     D. mean

12. A.shown    B. showing    C. show     D. to show

13. A.time     B. day      C. date     D. age

14. A.relating  B. covering   C. covers    D.relates

15. A.since    B. so as     C. so that    D. because

16. A.in     B. at      C. with     D. for

17. A.in     B. at      C. over      D. on

18. A.concentrating B. concentrated C. concentration D. being concentrated

19. A.for    B. in       C. to      D. after

20. A.detailing  B. detailed  C. being detailed   D. details

Ⅲ. Reading Comprehension(30 points, 2 points for each item)

从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

Space is a dangerous place, not only because of meteors (流星) but also because of rays from the sun and other stars. The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth. Light gets through, and this is essential for plants to make the food which we eat. Heat, too, makes our environment endurable. Various kinds of rays come through the air from outer space, but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off. As soon as men leave the atmosphere they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft, if they are inside, do prevent a lot of radiation damage.

Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space. The unit of radiation is called “rem”.Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than 0.1 rem without being damaged; the figure of 60 rems has been agreed on. The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage —— a person may feel perfectly well, but the cells of his or her sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of deformed (畸形的) children or even grandchildren. Missions of the Apollo flights have had to cross belts of high amount of rems. So far, no dangerous amounts of radiation have been reported, but the Apollo missions have been quite short. We simply do not know yet how men are going to get on when they spend weeks and months outside the protection of the atmosphere, working in a space laboratory. Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation, but no really effective ones have been found so far.

21. According to the first paragraph, the atmosphere is essential to man in that .

A. it protects him against the harmful rays from space

B. it provides sufficient light for plant growth

C. it supplies the heat necessary for human survival

D. it screens off the falling meteors 【】

22. We know from the passage that .

A. exposure to even tiny amounts of radiation is fatal

B. the effect of exposure to radiation is slow in coming

C. radiation is avoidable in space exploration

D. astronauts in spacesuits needn  t worry about radiation damage 【】

23. The harm radiation has done to the Apollo crew members .

A. is insignificant  B. seems overestimated     C. is enormous  D. remains unknown 【】

24. It can be inferred from the passage that .

A. the Apollo mission was very successful

B. protection from space radiation is no easy job

C. astronauts will have deformed children or grandchildren

D. radiation is not a threat to well-protected space explorers 【】

25. The best title for this passage would be .

A. The Atmosphere and Our Environment            B. Research on Radiation

C. Effects of Space Radiation                    D. Importance of Protection Against Radiation 【】

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

For some time past it has been widely accepted that babies — and other creatures — learn to do things because certain acts lead to “rewards” ; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective rewards, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological (生理的) “ drives ” as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink or some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise.

It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful outcome.

Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to “ reward ” the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children  s responses in situations where no milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement “ switched on ” a display of lights — and indeed that they were capable of learning quite complex turns to bring about this result, for instance, two left or two right, or even to make as many as three turns to one side.Papousek

slight display was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would “ smile and bubble ” when the display came on. Papousek concluded that it was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control.

26. According to the author, babies learn to do things which .

A. are directly related to pleasure        B. will meet their physical needs

C. will bring them a feeling of success    D. will satisfy their curiosity 【】

27. Papousek noticed in his studie that a baby .

A. would make learned responses when it saw the milk

B. would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink

C. would continue the simple movements without being given milk

D. would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink 【】

28. In Papousek  s experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to .

A. have the lights turned on   B. please their parents    C. be rewarded with milk  D. be praised 【】

29. The babies would “ smile and bubble ” at the lights because .

A. the lights were directly related to some basic “ drives ”

B. the sight of the lights was interesting

C. they need not turn back to watch the lights

D. they succeeded in “switching on” the lights 【】

30. According to Papousek, the pleasure babies get in achieving something is a reflection of .

A. a basic human desire to understand and control the world    

B. the satisfaction of certain physiological needs

C. their strong desire to solve complex problems   

D. a fundamental human urge to display their learned skills 【】

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to cold cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and their consequences, argue that rewards can improve performance at work and school. Cognitive (认知学派的) researchers, who study various aspects of mental life, maintain that rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others.

The latter view has gained many supporters, especially among educators. But the careful use of small monetary (金钱的) rewards sparks creativity in grade  school children, suggesting that properly presented inducements (刺激) indeed aid inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

“If kids know they  re working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task, they show the most creativity, ” says Robert Eisenberger of the University of Delaware in Neward. “ But it  s easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards. ”

A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades.

In earlier grades, the use of so — called token economies, in which students handle challenging problems and receive — based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims.

31. Psychologists are divided with regard to their attitudes toward .

A. the choice between spiritual encouragement and monetary rewards

B. the amount of monetary rewards for student  creativity

C. the study of relationship between actions and their consequences

D. the effects of external rewards on students  performance 【】

32. What is the response of many educators to external rewards for their students?

A. They have no doubts about them.         B. They have doubts about them.

C. They approve of them.                   D. They avoid talking about them. 【】

33. Which of the following can best raise students  creativity according to Robert Eisenberger?

A. Assigning them tasks they have not dealt with before.  

B. Assigning them tasks which require inventiveness.

C. Giving them rewards they really deserve.

D. Giving them rewards they anticipate. 【】

34. It can be inferred from the passage that major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe .

A. rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students

B. punishment is more effective than rewarding

C. failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards

D. discouraging the students  anticipation for easy rewards is a matter of urgency 【】

35. The phrase “ token economies ” (Line 1, Para. 5) probably refers to .

A. ways to develop economy             B. systems of rewarding students

C. approaches to solving problems      D. methods of improving performance 【】

Ⅳ.Word Spelling (10 points,1 point for two items)

将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。

36.投票;选举 v. v   37.年轻的 a. y

38.结合;合成 n. s   39.护照 n. p

40.鼓励;促进 v. f   41.杰出人物 n. e

42.侍者; 服务员 n. a  43.分界线;边界 n. b

44.面对;遭遇 v. c   45.效率 n. e

46.使用;雇佣 n. e   47.保证;担保 v. e

48.惯例的;常规的 a. c 49.鼓励;使人产生灵感 v. i

50.经济;节约 n. e   51.过高估计 v. o

52. 种族的 a. r     53.分开;分隔 n. s

54.幼儿园 n. k     55.立法 v. l

Ⅴ. Word Form(10 points, 1 point for each item)

将括号中的各词变为适当的形式填入空白。

56.They said he was (capable) of holding public office, so they decided to deprive him of his post.

57. Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in producing the first (electricity) lamp.

58.They (mistake) in their appreciation of the country  s economic conditions.

59. A written schedule is necessary for a (begin) freshman as he has had little experience and has not found a good time-control habit.

60. Once wasting time becomes your habit, you will continue (waste) more time.

61. It goes without (say) that healthy men are happier than sick men.

62. The candidates for presidency campaigned by sending out letters to voters and (speak) at public meetings.

63. The Ivy League is a group of eight old and (compete) universities of the northeastern United States.

64.The burden of running the factory is too heavy for his (fail) health.

65. If you look up tonight, you will see that the stars shine brightly in the (cloud) sky.

Ⅵ. Translation from Chinese into English(15 points, 3 points for each item) 将下列各句译成英语。

66.我们在乡下度过了愉快的周末。至于交通工具,我们没遇到困难。

67.我们要相信群众,依靠群众,尊重群众的首创精神。

68.科学家们将不得不提出增加世界粮食供应的新方法。

69.如果我们早点动身,现在就不会在雨中行走了。

70.只是最近我才意识到语言与文化密切相关。

Ⅶ. Translation from English into Chinese(15 points)  将下列短文译成汉语。

Quantity is equally important at a Chinese table. Chinese tend to order (and in their own homes, prepare ) much, much more food than the number of people attending can reasonably be expected to eat. When there is a lot of food left over at the end of the meal, the host can be assured that she had ordered a sufficient quantity. Of course, over the years, this practice has resulted in an incalculable amount of wasted food (though, thankfully, the trend in recent years seems to be toward taking food home). But the persistence of this emphasis on quantity tells the continued importance of considerations of face.