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2008年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试真题及解析
 
出自:  发布时间:2012年11月11日

 

同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语(英语)水平全国统一考试2008年真题
Paper One 试卷
(90minutes)
PartⅠ Dialogue Communication (10 minutes, 10 points, 1 for each)
Section A  Dialogue Completion
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialogues between two speakers, each followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the answer that best suits the situation to complete the dialogue. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.

1. A: Bob, would you mind turning down the TV a little? I'm talking on   the phone, and I'm having a hard time hearing.
 B: _______
A. Please forgive me.              B. Oh,sure! I'm sorry about that.
C. You should have told me earlier.   D. I'm sorry to hear about it.
2. A:Hi, I'm your neighbor in 405, next door, I'm Sunny Chan.
B:_______
A. I moved here about a week ago.
B. Hope we could become good neighbors.
C. Hi! Everyone here seems very friendly.
D. Jill Kingston. Nice to meet you.
3. A:Could you run me over to the office? I'm late. My clock must be slow.
B:_______
A. Yes, never mind. I would rather give you a lift.
B. All right. But you should buy a new clock.
C. It's my pleasure. May I help you fix your clock, too?
D. Yeah, I'll be glad to drop you off on my way to work.
4. A:I'm sorry. He's not in his office.
B:_______
A. Are you sure he will be back soon?         
B. Would you like to leave a message?
C. Can you take a message for me?          
D. Shall I call him sometime later?
5. A:Do you mind if I take off my jacket?
B:_______
A. Of course not, make yourself at home.       
B. Oh, it's very kind of you to do so.
C. I'll be happy if I can be of any help.         
D. Yes, it's pretty warm in here.
 
Section B   Dialogue Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short conversations between a man and a woman. At the end of each conversation there is a question followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to the question from the 4 choices by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
6. Man: Bob and Sue seem never discipline their daughter. She's real      nuts.
 Woman: They are kept in the dark about their daughter's behavior at school.
 Question:What can we learn about Bob and Sue's daughter?
A. She likes to eat nuts.
B. She is self-disciplined.
C. She behaves badly at school.
D. She enjoys leaving her parents in the dark.
7. Woman:Now, Richard, would you care to explain how the answers to the test questions appeared on your desk?
   Man:I can't, Professor Harley. Someone must have left them on my desk.
   Question:What is the man's problem?
A. He is suspected of cheating
B. He left the answers on his desk.
C .He doesn't know how to explain.
D. He didn't know the answers to the questions.
8. Woman:Don't forget to drop me a line when you settle down.
 Man:I won't. I'll keep you posted.
 Question:What does the man mean?
A. He'll write to the woman.
B. He'll tell the woman his new address.
C. He'll visit the woman once in a while.
D. He'll chat with the woman on the phone.
9. Man: Betty, how was your trip to the museum with Tom this afternoon?
  Woman:Don't ask me.
Question:What does the woman mean?
A. Something about the museum interested her.
B. Something was wrong with the trip.
C. She doesn't know anything about the museum.
D. She doesn't want to answer the man's question.
10. Man: Hey, Mary, I was invited to be a judge for the Miss America Beauty Contest.
Woman: Oh, really? Come on, you're pulling my leg.
Question: What does the woman mean?
A. She has no chance to win.
B. The man is encouraging her.
C. She'll attend the contest.
D. The man is trying to fool her.
 
Part II Vocabulary (10 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 for each) 
Section A
Directions:In this section, there are 10 sentences, each with one word or phrase underlined. Choose the one from the 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
11. The survey does not allow for the fact that some students are attending part-time.
A. explain       B. deny      C. consider      D. recognize
12. British scientists have found how to diagnose the disease, which causes loss of memory and personality change.
A. control        B. determine   C. prevent      D. treat
13. Witnesses were allegedly tortured or subjected to pressure to fabricate evidence against him.
A. fix up         B. take up     C. pack up      D. make up
14. So instead we spent the whole afternoon hanging around in the gorgeous autumn sun.
A. golden        B. beautiful    C. warm        D. shining
15. I couldn't work out why anyone would invent something so boring.
A. draw up       B. bring about   C. put forward   D. figure out
16. You can easily find out the benefits of flexible working for both you and your employer.
A. loose         B. effective     C. elastic       D. resourceful
17. The State Department has issued a regulation abolishing the special privileges for government officials.
A. grants         B. rights        C. advantages    D. interests
18. Will Americans go for AT&T's plan of pushing the wireless services in the U.S.?
A. support        B. adopt         C. hinder       D. attack
19.What lies in pieces around them represents,in effect,a unique private exhibition open to a lucky few.
A .in short        B. in particular    C. in fact        D. in turn
20. The weekend event will be centered around Wye College in Ashford, Kent, but the outing to the docks should be the highlight.
A. climax         B. pleasure      C. expectation     D. surprise
 
Section B
Directions: In this section, there are 10 incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
21. Then in June 1967 the country ______ diplomatic relations with Israel after the outbreak of the Six Day War.
A. broke away      B. broke off     C. cut out         D. cut down
22. Everyone has faced the embarrassing ______ of deciding how much extra to give a waiter or taxi-driver.
A. incident         B. event        C. dilemma        D. menace
23. The school arranged road trip appears to ______ the spring break.
A. conform to               B. coincide with 
C. consist in                 D. collide with
24. The new airport terminal is sure to _______ the development of tourism.
A. imitate         B. fascinate       C. impose        D. facilitate
25. The Huntington Library has a (an) ______ collection of rare books and manuscripts of British and American history and literature.
A. intensive                 B. intentional     
C. extensive                D. extensional
26. Inflation will reach its highest in a decade across most of Asia this year, threatening to _______ recent productivity gains.
A. reverse       B. reserve           C. retrieve         D. revise
27. Those governments will provide big food and fuel ______ according to the Asian Development Bank.
A. substitutes              B. substances     
C. subsequences            D. subsidies
28. In mild winters apple buds began to break soon after Christmas,leaving them _______ to frost damage.
A. reluctant    B. tough           C. hostile         D. vulnerable
29. What is happening is a survival-of-the-fittest straggle affecting ______ smaller factories in relatively low-tech,labor-intensive industries.
A. primarily   B. rationally       C. primitively      D. respectively
30. A traditional critic has the advantage of being able to _______ standards and values inherited from the past.
A. turn up     B. turn over       C. turn to           D. turn in
 
Part Ⅲ  Reading Comprehension (45 minutes, 25 points, 1 for each)
Directions: There are 5 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by 5 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
Passage One
The job was done, and it was time for a last cigarette. Eddie began tapping the pockets of his overalls, looking for the new packet of Marlboro he had bought that morning. It was not there.
It was as he swung around to look in his toolbox for the cigarettes that Eddie saw the lump. Right in the middle of the brand new bright red carpet,there was a lump, a lump the size of a packet of cigarettes.
"I've done it again!" said Eddie angrily. "I've left the cigarettes under the carpet!"
He had done this once before,and taking up and refitting the carpet had taken him two hours. Eddie was determined that he was not going to spend another two hours in this house. He decided to get rid of the lump another way. It would mean wasting a good packet of cigarettes, nearly full, but anything was better than taking up the whole carpet and fitting it again. He turned to his toolbox for a large hammer. Eddie didn't want to damage the carpet itself, so he took a block of wood and placed it on top of the lump. Then he began to beat the block of wood as hard as he could. He kept beating,hoping Mrs. Vanbrugh wouldn't hear the noise and come to see what he was doing. It would be difficult to explain why he was hammering the middle of her beautiful new carpet....The lump was beginning to flatten out.
After three or four minutes,the job Was finally finished. Eddie picked up his tools,and began to walk out to his car. Mrs. Vanbrugh accompanied him. She seemed a little worried about something.
"Young man,while you were working todayyou didn't by any chance see any sign of Armanddid you? Armand is my bird. I let him out of his cageyou seethis morningand he's disappeared. He likes to walk around the house,and he usually just comes back to his cage after an hour or so and gets right in. Only today he didn't come back. He's never done such a thing before, it's most peculiar..."
"No, madam, I haven't seen him anywhere," said Eddie, as he reached to start the Car.
And he saw his packet of Marlboro cigarettes on the panel, where he had left it at lunchtime...
And he remembered the lump in the carpet....
 
31. What did Eddie want to do when he had finished fitting the carpet?
A. To have a cigarette.                         
B. To hammer the carpet flat.
C. To put back his tools.                       
D. To start work in the dining room.
32. Why didn't Eddie take out the thing under the carpet?
A. It was impossible for him to take up the carpet once it was fitted.
B. He didn't need the cigarettes because he had some more in the Car.
C. It would take too long to take up the carpet and refit it.
D. He intended to come back and remove the lump the next day.
33. What did Eddie do with the hammer?
A. He drove nails into the lump.                   
B. He fixed his toolbox.
C. He retired the carpet.                         
D. He flattened the lump.
34. Mrs. Vanbrugh worried that_______.
A. her pet was nowhere to be found               
B. fitting the carpet would be expensive
C. Eddie would smoke in the house               
D. Eddie hadn't done a proper job
35. What was really under the carpet?
A. The packet of cigarettes                       
B. Eddie's hammer.
C. A lump of wood.                              
D. The missing pet.
 
Passage Two
If two scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are correct, people will still be driving gasoline-powered cars 50 years from now, giving out heat-trapping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere-and yet that carbon dioxide will not contribute to global warming. The scientists,F Jeffrey Martin and William L. Kubic Jr., are proposing a concept,which they have patriotically named Green Freedom, for removing carbon dioxide from the air and turning it back into gasoline.
The idea is simple. Air would be blown over a liquid solution which would absorb the carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be extracted and subjected to chemical reactions that would turn it into fuel. Although they have not yet built a fuel factory, or even a small prototype, the scientists say it is all based on existing technology. "Everything in the concept has been built,is operating or has a close cousin that is operating,"Dr. Martin said. The proposal does not violate any laws of physics, and other scientists have independently suggested similar ideas.
In the efforts to reduce humanity's emissions of carbon dioxide, three solutions have been offered:hydrogen-powered carselectric cars and biofuels. Biofuels are gasoline substitutes produced from plants like corn or sugar cane. Plants absorb carbon dioxide as they grow, but growing crops for fuel takes up wide strips of land. Hydrogen-powered Cars emit no carbon dioxide, but producing hydrogen requires energy, and if that energy comes from coal-fired power plants,then the problem has not been solved. The problem with electric cars is that they have typically been limited to a range of tens of miles as opposed to the hundreds of miles that can be driven on a tank of gas.
Gasoline,it turns out,is an almost ideal fuel (except that it produces carbon dioxide). If it can be made out of carbon dioxide in the air, the Los Alamos concept may mean there is little reason to switch, after all.
"It's definitely worth pursuing,"said Martin I. Hoffert,a professor of physics at New York University.” It has a couple of pieces to it that are interesting. "Other scientists also said the proposal looked promising but could not evaluate it fully because the details had not been published.
 
36. What is most remarkable about the proposal, made by the two scientists?
A. It is given a patriotic name.
B. No law of physics is violated.
C. It is based on existing technology.
D. Carbon dioxide can be converted into fuel
37. What is the biggest problem with hydrogen-powered cars?
A. There is no cheap source of hydrogen.
B. There might be a safety problem in hydrogen production.
C. They may still be a cause of global warming.
D. They are not suitable for long-distance travel.
38. If what is proposed by the two scientists becomes true, ________.
A. air pollution will,become a thing of the past
B. there will be no need for gasoline substitutes
C. people will be able to use much cheaper energy
D. there will be no more biofuel-powered vehicles
39. Which of the following can best describe the attitude of Martin I Hoffert to the proposal?
A. Indifferent.         B. Positive.     
C. Suspicious.         D. Critical.
40. The passage is mainly written to_______.
A. introduce a new concept                 
B. compare different energy sources
C. stress the importance of gasoline           
D. discuss solutions to global warming
 
Passage Three
In her international bestselling Talk to the Hand, author Lynne Truss, argues that common courtesies such as saying "Excuse me" are practically extinct. There are certainly plenty who would agree with her.
Is it really true? We decided to find out by experiments. In dozens of American cities, our reporters performed two experiments:"door tests" (would anyone hold one open for them?)and "document drops" (who would help them retrieve a pile of "accidentally" dropped papers?).Along the way, the reporters encountered all types:men and women of different races, ages, professions ,and income levels.
While 90 percent of the people passed the door test,only 55 percent passed the document drop. Are people less likely to help others when doing so takes extra effort or time? Not always, the reporters found. Take the pregnant woman who thought nothing of bending down to help us with our papers. Or the woman named Liz who balanced two coffeesher keys and her wallet on a takeout tray with one hand,while picking up papers off the wet pavement with the other. Her reason for helping? “I was there," she said.
Overall,men were the most willing to helpespecially when it came to document drops. In those, men offered aid 63 percent of the timecompared to 47 percent among women. Of course,men weren't entirely democratic about whom they'd help. All of them held the door for the female reporter, and were more than twice as likely to help her pick up fallen papers than they were to help our male reporter.
By far, the most common reason people cited for being willing to go out of their way to help others was their upbringing. "It's the way I was raised,"said one young woman who held a door open despite struggling with her umbrella on a rainy day in Brooklyn.
We realize this isn't a rigorous scientific study, but we believe it is a reasonable real-world test of good manners around the globe. And it's comforting to know that in a place where millions of people push one another each day to get ahead,they're able to do it with a smile. Hey, if they can make nice here,they can make nice anywhere.
 
41. Which of the following is the best word to describe the experiments?
A. Scientific.                B. Biased.      
C. Revolutionary.            D. Realistic.
42. The examples of the pregnant woman and Liz are used to show that some people________.
A. may take the trouble to help others
B. won't take the trouble to help others
C. may help others save time
D. won't help others save time
43. According to the experiments,_______.
A. women are more careful.
B. women are more likely to need help
C. men are more ready to help
D. men are more democratic in helping others
44. Helping others is a behavior that is largely influenced by_______.
A. social norm              B. family education   
C. specific situation          D. personal character
45. The results of the experiments have shown that common courtesies_______.
A. are still with us                       B. are disappearing   
C. vary with professions                  D. need rigorous study
 
Passage Four
Within a large concrete room cut out of a mountain on a freezing-cold island just 1,000 kilometers from the North Pole,could lie the future of humanity.
The room is a vault(地下库)designed to hold around 2 million seeds, representing all known varieties of the world's crops. It is being built to safeguard the world's food supply against nuclear War, climate changeterrorismrising sea levelsearthquakes and the collapse of electricity supplies"If the worst came to the worstthis would allow the world to reconstruct agriculture on this planet"says Cary Fowler, director of the Global Crop Diversity Trust,an independent international organization promoting the project.
The Norwegian (挪威的)government is planning to create the seed bank next year at the request of crop scientists. The $3 million vault will be built deep inside a sandstone mountain on the Norwegian Arctic island of Spitsbergen. The vault will have meter-thick walls of reinforced concrete and will be protected behind two airlocks and high-security doors.
The vault's seed collection will represent the products of some 10, 000 years of plant breeding by the world's farmers. Though most are no longer widely planted, the varieties contain vital genetic properties still regularly used in plant breeding.
To survive,the seeds need freezing temperatures. Operators plan to replace the air inside the vault each winter, when temperatures in Spitsbergen are around-18℃.But even if some disaster meant that the vault was abandoned, the permanently frozen soil would keep the seeds alive. And even accelerated global warming would take many decades to penetrate the mountain vault.
"This will be the world's most secure gene bank," Says Fowler. "But its seeds will only be used when all other samples have gone for some reason."
The project comes at a time when there is growing concern about the safety of existing seed banks around the world. Many have been criticized for their poor security, ageing refrigeration(冷藏)systems and vulnerable electricity supplies.
The scheme won UN approval at a meeting of the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome in October 2005.A feasibility study said the facility "would essentially be built to last forever".
 
46. The Norwegian vault is important in that_________________.
A. the seeds in it represent the rarest varieties of world's crops
B. the seeds in it could revive agriculture if the worst thing should happen
C. it is built deep in a mountain on a freezing-cold Arctic island
D. it is strong enough against all disasters caused by man and nature
47. The seed bank project was proposed by_____________.
A. the Norwegian government               B. Norwegian farmers
C. Spitsbergen residents                    D. agricultural scientists
48. The seeds in the vault will be stored___________________.
A. as samples of world crop varieties         
B. as products of world plant breeding
C. for their valuable genetic properties           
D. for their resistance to plant diseases
49. For the seed bank project to be successful, the most important factor is probably______________.
A. constructing tight airlocks
B. maintaining high security
C. keeping freezing temperatures
D. storing large quantities of seeds
50. Which of the following statements is true?
A. The Norwegian vault models after existing seed banks.
B. The Spitsbergen seed bank is expected to last 10,006 years.
C. The existing seed banks have potential problems.
D. The UN financed the Spitsbergen seed bank.
 
Passage Five
Probably the hardest part of setting goals is the first step of actually deciding to take action! The first barrier facing most people is the incorrect assumption that goals are only for business people. The reality is everyone sets goals mentally throughout the day. There are always occasions where something has to be done at a particular time or in a particular place. Simple examples could be getting up at a certain time in order to be at work,or to meet with a friend for a leisure activity.
The beauty of having goals is the uniqueness of each one to the goal setter. Whether it is personal, financial, business or spiritual, they are all specific to that person and their circumstances.
The most important part initially is to write them down. Having goals written down gives you incredible power while helping you to focus on this area.
Aim for something that will stretch you while remaining achievable. If you achieve your goal too easily, it is not high enough to make any significant change in your life and needs to be adjusted. On the other hand,if you consistently miss the goalsreevaluateand consider setting them a little lower as you will only get discouraged and probably give up. The aim is to keep growing,and moving into a more satisfactory position for your particular circumstances.
As you obtain the levels that you have set for yourself, always include a small reward at each point. This might only be a small thing in the early days like a meal out or a weekend vacation.
Remember that these changes will not happen overnight and there will be a period of time when nothing seems to be happening. This is why the goals need to be detailed and as specific as possible with a consequence and benefit.
Allow some time on a daily basis to educate yourself on how to make the necessary adjustments in your life. This could include listening to a CD,or reading a book on motivation etc.
A simple method to start with could be one goal in the main areas of life to be achieved in one month, six months, twelve months or five years. Break that down further into a daily, weekly and monthly system. Stay focused and disciplined to achieve all that you desire.
 
51. The simple examples in Paragraph 1 convey the message that________.
A. goals are set mostly for important things
B. most people know when it is time to set goals
C. people set goals to get things done all the time
D. it is necessary to set goals occasionally
52. The charm of having goals is that each goal is________.
A. important         B. motivated         
C. special            D. spiritual
53. A good goal is one that________.
A. keeps growing all the time
B. is high enough yet attainable
C. moves one into a satisfactory position
D. is evaluated from time to time
54. Goals have to be detailed so that people________.
A. can know their achievements a teach stage
B. will eventually reach the levels set for themselves
C. may get small rewards such as a meal out
D. can adjust them on various occasions
55. For a goal to be achieved,one has to_______.
A. believe in what he is doing
B. adapt oneself to new changes
C. divert from routine sometimes
D. concentrate on it until it is attained
 
PartIV Cloze   (15 minutes, 15 points, 1 for each)
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blank there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
The process of presentation has two important components: what you say and __56__ you deliver it. The term delivery covers a wide __57__ of features of speaking and eye contact is one of them.
The appropriate use of eye contact __58__ from one culture to another. In some cultures, women are__59__to lower their eyes in most communication __60__ ; in others,younger people must keep their eyes lowered when addressing older people. __61__, in the United States,    __62__ you are addressing an individuala small group of peopleor a larger audienceyou are expected to look at them. You do not have to stare __63__and continuously__64__it is appropriate when speaking to one person to __65__ occasionally. In a small group you should look around at the different members of the group. __66__when addressing a larger audienceyou should try to make eye contact with different people around the room. It is important to look at the __67__audiencenot just the people in the center of the room, __68__you will probably have to turn your head or your body in order to make proper eye contact with people __69__at the sides of the room. If you look at the floor or the ceiling you will give the impression that you are not interested in your audience .A speaker establishes friendly relationship with the audiencemainly__70__   eye contact,and good relationship is essential to the success of any speech.
 

56. A. why  
B. whom
C. how
D. where
57. A. stretch
B. expanse
C. extent
D. range
58. A. varies                             
B. alters
C. specifies 
D. differentiates
59. A. assumed
B. proposed
C. expected
D. desired
60. A. domains
B. settings
C. scopes
D. environments
61. A. Otherwise
B. Moreover
C. Likewise
D. However
62. A. whether  
B. either
C. though
D. unless
63. A. constantly
B. intensely
C. properly
D. desperately
64. A. in addition 
B. for instance
C. in fact
D.on the other hand
65. A. look away
B. look around
C. look back     
D. look over
66. A. Even
B. And
C. Thus
D. Or
67. A. total
B. overall
C. utter
D. entire
68. A. so
B. yet
C. then
D. but
69. A. seat
B. seated
C. be seated
D. being seating
70. A. upon               
B. after
C. through
D. until

                                                      
 
Part V  Error Detection (10 minutes, 5 points, 0.5 for each)
Directions: In this part, there are 10 sentences. Each sentence has 4 underlined words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
71. When I heard the principal called my name,I walked to the front
A                     B                     C      
to receive my diploma.
   D
72. Many a man has made a fortune and then have no idea what to do
A                   B           C
with it.
 D
73. When she arrivedI was pretty fed up,because I waited since eight
A           B                  C     D
 
o'clock.
74. Learners cannot assimilate information that is presented to him at
A        B  
a higher level of abstraction that at which they feel comfortable.
C                  D
 
75. As you know that you must check in at least 30 minutes
A                B                                          
before takeoff for most flights.
C              D
76. After attracting more than a million marchers------four times of the
A                                       B
size of the historical 1963 March on Washington-the 2004 March for
 
women's Life became the largest mass demonstration in history.
C                                D
77. Although well receiving by business leaders,the book is not meant to
A    B                                      C
 
whitewash any of the miscalculations and shortsighted decisions of
D
 
some corporate bosses.
 
78. Seriously, though,there's always something you wish you have not
A                       B              C     
done,but what is done cannot be undone.
 D
79. Comparing money with friends,I prefer the latter morefor real
A                                      B    C
friends are not easy to come by,and we must value their real friendship.
D
80. Breaking up water into hydrogen and oxygen is a good example of as
A             B                                    C
is known as a chemical change.
D
 
 
Paper Two
(60 minutes)
Part I Translation (30 minutes, 20 points, 10 for each section)
Section A
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
 
Engineers are developing a new type of Internet connection that could carry so much data so quickly that it might surprise even Net surfers. This technology would open up a route through which data can be sent at speeds thousands of times faster than what's possible now. If all goes to plan,the vast data speeds may soon be available to all. That might help solve the problem of how to handle the enormous growth in Internet traffic. The technology would require some new software and fiber-optic links to the PC,but otherwise no change in basic facilities.
 
Section B
Directions:Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
 
当前我国经济发展迅速,能源供应的压力较大,这跟我国当前经济和社会发展所处的阶段不无关系。但是,不管我们处于哪个发展阶段,如果消耗能源过多,就会因此受到惩罚,面临能源匮乏、环境污染和生态破坏等困境。
 
Part II Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)
Directions:In this part, you are to write a composition of no less than 150 words within 30 minutes on Self-confidence Is a Key to Success. You could follow the clues suggested by the picture given below. Remember to write the composition clearly on the COMPOSITION SHEET.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语(英语)水平全国统一考试
2008年英语真题答案及解析
          Key to 2008 English Test
              Paper One
Part I Dialogue Communication (10 points)
Section A
1. B
解析:影响到别人,要表示歉意应该用I'm sorry about that。故答案为B。
2. D
解析:此题为寒暄用语的考点,说话人双方自我介绍。所以D "我叫吉尔•金斯顿,很高兴见到你"为正确答案。故答案为D。
3. D
解析:此题同样为"一般疑问句+请求"的考点。题目中,说话人A 请求他人把自己送到办公室,因为他要迟到了。D项回答既礼貌又得体。故答案为D。
4. C
解析:此题为接打电话的考点。题目中表达了打电话要找的人此时不在办公室。当要找的人无法接电话时,固定的情景处理就是留言。C 项是打电话的人请求留言的固定说法。故答案为C。
5. A
解析:此题考查的是表示请求的考点。A 说你介意我脱掉外套吗? A "当然不介意,把这儿当作自己的家,随意吧。"为正确答案。其它三项都不符合此情景。故答案为A。
 
Section B
6. C
解析:男士:鲍勃和苏从来不管教他们的女儿。那孩子真是顽劣。而他们一直都不知道女儿在学校的表现。由此可知,鲍勃和苏的女儿在学校表现很糟糕。故答案为C。
7. A
解析:女士:现在,理查德,你能解释一下试题的答案怎么就出现在你的桌子上了呢?由此可见,教授怀疑理查德考试作弊。故答案为A 。
8. A
解析:女士:等你安定下来后,不要忘了给我写信。男士:不会忘的,我会与你保持联系的。由此可见,男士将和女士保持通信联系。故答案为A 。
9. B
解析:男士:今天下午与汤姆一起去博物馆玩得怎么样?女士:别问我。由此可以看出,女士去博物馆玩得并不开心。故答案为B。
10. D
解析:男士:玛丽,他们邀请我去美国小姐选美比赛做评委了。女士:是吗?你在逗我玩吧!也就是女士并不相信男士所说的话,认为他在逗她玩。故答案为D。
 
Part II Vocabulary (10 points)
Section A
11. C
【解析】 allow for 考虑,顾及。explain 解释;deny 否定;consider 考虑;recognize 承认。故答案为C。
【句意】这项调查并没有考虑到有些学生参加兼职的情况。
12. B
【解析】diagnose 确诊。control 控制;determine 决定,判断;prevent 预防;treat 治疗。故答案为B。
【句意】英国科学家已经发现了如何确诊这种会引起失忆和人格变化的疾病。
13. D
【解析】fabricate 编造,捏造。fix up 固定,决定,修理;take up 从事, pack up 完成工作,停工;makeup 编造。故答案为D。
【句意】目击者据称是受到酷刑或压力才伪造了对他不利的证据。
14. B
【解析】gorgeous 华丽的,灿烂的,色彩丰富的。golden 金色的;beautiful 美丽的,漂亮的;warm 温暖的;shining 闪闪发光的,杰出的,出众的。故答案为B 。
【句意】所以最后我们整个下午都在秋天灿烂美丽的阳光中闲逛。
15. D
【解析】work out 得出,算出,做出。Draw up 起草,拟定;bring about 带来,引起;put forward 提出;figure out 想出,算出,得出。故答案为D 。
【句意】我真的想不通为什么有人会发明如此无聊的东西。
16. C
【解析】flexible 灵活的。loose 疏散的;effective 有效的;elastic 弹性的,可伸缩的;resourceful 机智的,有办法的,随机应变的。故答案为C 。
【句意】你会很容易发现弹性工作制对你和你的老板带来的好处。
17. B
【解析】privilege 特权,权利。grants,补助金,助学金;rights 权利;advantages 好处,优势;interests 兴趣,利益。故答案为B。
【句意】国务院颁布了一条废除政府官员特权的法令。
18. A
【解析】go for 主张,拥护。support 支持;adopt 采纳;hinder 阻止,妨碍;attack 攻击。故答案为A。
【句意】美国人会支持美国电话电报公司关于在美国推行无线服务的计划吗?
19. C
【解析】in effect 事实上。in short 简而言之;in particular 特别是;in fact 事实上;in turn 轮流。故答案为C 。
【句意】他们周围陈列的这些物品表明,事实上,这是一个只对少数幸运的人开放的私人展览。
20. A
【解析】highlight 最重要的部分,最突出的部分,亮点。climax 高潮;pleasure 高兴,愉快;expectation 期望;surprise 惊喜。故答案为A。
【句意】周末的活动将以肯特郡阿什福德区的怀伊学院为中心展开,但是去船坞旅游才是整个活动的亮点。
 
Section B
21. B
【解析】broke away 逃脱,挣脱,放弃,脱离;broke off 中断,解除;cut out 割掉,剪裁;cut down 削减。故答案为B 。
【句意】1967 66日战争爆发以后,这个国家中断了与以色列的外交关系。
22. C
【解析】incident 事情,事件;event 事件;dilemma 左右为难的处境;menace 威胁,胁迫。故答案为C 。
【句意】每个人都面临过应该付给服务生或出租车司机多少钱的尴尬处境。
23. B
【解析】conform to 遵循,遵守;coincide with 与……一致;consist in 连贯,坚持;collide with 撞击,冲突,抵触。故答案为B 。
【句意】学校安排的公路旅行似乎与春假同时进行。
24. D
【解析】imitate 模仿;fascinate 极感兴趣,强烈吸引,迷住;impose 强加;facilitate推动,促进。故答案为D 。
【句意】机场新候机楼肯定是为了促进旅游业的发展而建造的。
25. C
【解析】intensive 深入细致的,集中的;intentional 有目的的,有意图的;extensive 大量的,广大的;extensional 延伸的,扩展的。故答案为C。
【句意】亨廷顿图书馆收藏了大量珍贵图书以及英美历史和文学方面的著作。
26. A
【解析】 reverse 颠覆,倒退,推翻;reserve 预订,保留;retrieve 找回,取回;revise修订,校订。故答案为A。
【句意】今年在亚洲大部分地区,通货膨胀达到了十年来历史新高,几乎颠覆了最近的生产收益。
27. D
【解析】substitutes 替代品;substances 物质,事实;subsequences 顺序;subsidies补贴,津贴。故答案为D。
【句意】根据亚洲发展银行的报告,那些国家将提供大量食物和燃料津贴。
28. D
【解析】reluctant 不情愿的;tough 艰难的,困难的,棘手的;hostile 敌对的,敌意的;vulnerable 易受伤害的,脆弱的。故答案为D。
【句意】在温和的冬季,圣诞节之后不久苹果花蕾就开了,这使它们容易受到冰霜的伤害。
29. A
【解析】primarily 主要地;rationally 理智地,明智地;primitively 原始地,简单地,简朴地;respectively 各自地。故答案为A。
【句意】适者生存的竞争机制正在影响着一些起初从事技术水平相对较低、劳动密集型的小工厂。
30. C
【解析】turn up 找到,出现;turn over 翻过去,反复考虑;turn to 变成,致力于;turn in 上交。故答案为C。
【句意】一个传统的评论家的优势在于他能继承过去的标准和价值观。
 
Part III Reading Comprehension (25 points)
Passage One
31. A
解析:第一段指出:工作完成了,该抽最后一支烟了。其它选项是对文章的错误理解。故答案为A 。
32. C
解析:第四段指出:他以前曾经这样做过,掀起地毯加上重新整理用了他两个小时的时间。Eddie 下决心不能在这房子里再花两个小时。其它选项不符合原文。
33. D
解析:第四段说,他想用其它方法把地毯上凸起的那一块平整下去。于是他开始翻工具箱找大锤。其它选项均为干扰选项,故答案为D。
34. A
解析:第六段、第七段中有两句话说:“革布勒夫人送他出来,她看起来像是在担心什么。”“小伙子,你铺地毯的时候,有没有偶然看到阿曼德? 它是我的鸟"。其它三项为干扰项。
35. D
解析:故事最后说:这时他看到了仪表盘上的那包烟,他午饭的时候放在那里的……然后他又想起了地毯突起的那一块……,由此推断出他砸的是鸟。故答案为D 。
[参考译文]
活己经干完了(accomplish, complete, finish) ,是时候抽最后一支烟(cigarette )了,埃迪开始轻轻拍了拍( tap, clap, pat) 他工作裤(overalls: work plant) 的口袋(pocket) ,寻找(look for, seek for) 那天早晨他新买的一包万宝路烟,可是没有找到。
就在埃迪转过身(swing around: turn around) 来到他的工具箱(toolbox: workbox) 里找烟时,他看见(see: catch sight of, watch, look, observe) 崭新(brand new) 的大红色(bright red)地毯(carpet) 正中间(in the middle of)的一块凸起,大小就正如一包(a packet of)烟那么大。
"我怎么又干了这种蠢事!"埃迪气恼地(angrily) "又把烟落在地毯下面了。"
这种事他以前就干过一次(once) 。上次把地毯掀起来(take up) 再重新整理(refitrenovate) 用了他(take: spend, cost) 两个小时。这次埃迪可不想在这所房子里再花上两个小时。他决定(decide: determine) 用别的(another) 方法(way: method, approach) 来除去(eliminate, remove, get rid of)这块凸起。这就意味着(mean) 要浪费(squander, waste)掉差不多整整一盒好烟,但怎么做都比把地毯全翻起来再整理要好得多(much better than) 。他转身(turn to) 到工具箱里拿了一把大锤子(hammer) 。埃迪不想损坏(damage: destroy, ruin, break, devastate) 地毯,所以他拿了一块(a block of)木头(wood) 把它放到(place: lay, set)那块凸起的地毯上面(top) ,然后他开始(begin: start, commence) 使劲(hard: all one's exertions, do/try ones best to, spare no effort to) 地敲打(beat: pound, heat, knock) 那块木块。他不断(keep doing) 地敲着,希望范布勒夫人不会因听到噪音(noise) 而过来看他正在干什么,因为他很难解释(explain: interpret, resolve) 为什么他要在范布勒夫人漂亮的新地毯中央(middle: center) 不断地敲打……那块凸起逐渐变平(flatten out: flatten, level out) 了。
过了三四分钟,活儿终于干完了。埃迪拿起(pick up: take up) 工具向他的车走去,范布勒夫人跟着(accompany: follow) 他一起出来,好像(seem: look like, appear) 在为什么事情而忧心忡忡(worried: anxious) 。
范布勒夫人对他说"小伙子,你今天工作时,有没有见过阿曼德? 阿曼德是我养的小鸟。今天早晨我把它放出(let out: set free) 笼子(cage) 后,它就不见了(disappear: vanish) 。它喜欢在屋子里四处走动(walk around: move around) ,可是通常(usually: ordinarily, as a rule, generally) 一个小时左右(or so: about)它就会回笼子里。只有今天它没回来,它以前从来不这样的。这真是太奇怪(peculiar: strange, odd, queer) 了…
"是的,夫人,我没见过它。"埃迪一边回答一边去发动(start: launch) 车子。
这时他看见了在仪表盘(panel)上的那盒万宝路烟,午餐时(lunchtime) 他把烟落(leave)在那里了…...
然后他想起了(remember: recall. remind) 起地毯里的那一小块凸起……
 
Passage Two
36. D
第一段中明确指出:两位科学家提出了一个概念。他们为它取了个爱国的名字叫绿色自由,因为它可以吸出空气中的二氧化碳并把它转化为汽油。其它选项均不符合原文大意,故答案为D。
37. C
第三段中说:氢气动力车不会释放二氧化碳,但产生氢气需要能量,如果这能量是来自火力发电厂,那还是无法解决问题。其它选项为干扰项,故答案为C 。
38. B
第三段中说:汽油被证明是几乎完美的燃料。如果能用空气中的二氧化碳制造汽油的话, Los Alamos 的想法就意味着根本不用其它替代燃料。其它选项都不符合此题的要求,故答案为B 。
39. B
最后一段中明确指出"It's definitely worth pursuing..." 意思是:无疑,这个想法值得尝试。其它选项均未提及,故答案为B 。
40. A
全文重点介绍汽油为什么是完美的燃料。第一段简要陈述这个新概念。第二段对此新概念进行详细的解释和阐述。第二段列举出解决全球变暖的几项方案,并指出这些方案所存在的问题。最后一段,通过其他科学家对这个概念的评述,再一次对方案给予肯定。其它选项均不是原文的重点,故答案为A。
 
[参考译文]
如果勒斯阿拉墨斯国家实验室(laboratory: lab) 的两位科学家( scientist )是正确的,那么从现在起未来50 年中人们将继续驾驶汽油发动 (gasoline-powered) 的汽车,并继续向大气(atmosphere: air) 中排放(give out: emit, release) 会产生温室效应(heat-trapping) 的二氧化碳(carbon dioxide) ---然而到那时,二氧化碳却己不再是导致(contribute to: lead to, cause, result in) 全球变暖(global warming) 的因素了。科学家杰费里•马丁和威廉•小库比克提出(propose: put forward, suggest, put up with) 了一个观念(concept: idea, notion, conception) ,出于爱国(patriotically )之心,他们将其命名(name: call)"绿色自由" (Green Freedom) ,即把二氧化碳从空气中分离(remove: get rid of , eliminate, exclude) 出来,然后把它转化(turn into: change into, convert, transform) 为汽油。
这种构想(idea) 很简单(simple: easy) 。当在一种溶液(liquid solution) 上方有空气吹过(blow over) 时,这种溶液就会吸收(absorb: take in, assimilate) 空气中的二氧化碳,之后二氧化碳就被提取(extract: distill, take out) 出来,经过(subject to) 化学反应(chemical reaction) 转化为燃料(fuel)。尽管科学家们目前还没有建成(build) 燃料工厂(fuel factory) ,甚至(even) 连一个小小的模型(prototype: model, pattern) 也没有,但他们说这个构想完全可以基于(based on: on ... basis, built on) 现有(existing: present) 的技术(technology: skill, technique) 建立起来。马丁博士说"这个构想中的每个环节都是现成的、己在运作(operate)或是有近似的(close: similar)技术正在运行。"这项提议(proposal: suggestion, concept, motion) 并不违反( violate: conflict, contradict) 任何物理规律(laws of physics) ,其他科学家也各自提出了类似的(similar) 想法(ideas) 。
在努力(effort) 减少(reduce: cut down, decease) 人类排放的(emission:
discharge) 二氧化碳的过程中,有三种解决方案(solution: method, approach, way alternative) 可供选择: 氢动力燃料(hydrogen-powered) 汽车、电动(electric) 汽车和生物燃料(biofuel)汽车。生物燃料是汽油的替代物(substitute) ,可以用玉米(corn: maize) 或甘庶(sugar cane) 之类的植物生产(produce: make,. manufacture) 出来。植物在生长(grow) 过程中吸收(absorb)二氧化碳,但是种植用来提取燃料的庄稼(crop) 需要占用(take up: occupy) 大片的土地(wide strips of land) 。氢动力燃料汽车不会排放(emit: exhaust, discharge, give out) 二氧化碳,但生产氢气却需要( require: need, demand) 能源(energy: power) 。如果能源是由燃煤电厂(coal-fired power plants) 提供(come from: provide, offer, supply) ,那么问题还是没有得到解决( solve: resolve, settle , deal with, cope with) 。电动汽车的问题是它只能(be limited to) 在数十英里的范围之内(a range of)运行,与之相对(as opposed to) 的是装一油箱汽油( a tank of gas )的车能开几百英里。
结果证明(turn out: prove) ,汽油几乎(almost: nearly) 是一种最理想( ideal: best) 的燃料,当然得排除(except: apart from) 它会产生二氧化碳的事实。如果能从空气中的二氧化碳中制造出(make: produce) 油料,勒斯阿拉墨斯概念可能意味着(mean) 根本没必要改变(switch: change, turn) 我们现在所用的燃料。
纽约大学的物理学教授马丁霍费特说"这个构想绝对值(worth) 得深入研究(pursue: study further) ,这里面有很多有趣的地方"。其他的科学家则认为这个方案看起来C look: seem, look like) 前景(promising) 很好,但是因为很多细节(detail)尚未公布(publish: announce) ,很难对它做出充分(fully: completely) 的评估(evaluate: asset, assess, appraise) 。
 
Passage Three
41. D
解析:第二段中说:真的是这样吗? 故答案为D 。
42. A
解析:第三段第二句指出:当需要花费额外的时间和力气才能帮助别人的时候,是不是人们就不可能实施帮助了呢?不总是这样的。由此可知作者认为人们即使认识到有麻烦,也会帮助别人。故答案为A 。
43. C
解析:第四段中明确指出"Overall, men were the most willing to help..." 意为:总体上,男性更愿意提供帮助。故答案为C ,其它选项均为干扰项。
44. B
解析:第五段说:显然,实验中的人们愿意放下手中的事情,特地去帮助别人,这主要缘于他们的教养。作者明确提出了原因,故答案为B。
45. A
解析:最后一段中指出:我们可以看出这不是一个缜密的科学实验,但是我们认为,这是一个测试礼貌就在我们周围的一个合理的真实的实验。由此可知作者的态度,故答案为A。
[参考译文]
在《与手讲话》这本畅销(best -selling )国际的书中,作者林恩•恰斯认为(argue: think; believe, hold) 常见的(common: average, ordinary, usual) 礼貌(polite, civilized, cultured, genteel) 用语,比如 "打扰了" 几乎(practically: almost, nearly) 已经不存在(exist, survive, live) 了。确实,(certainly: absolutely) 有很多人同意(agree: concur, concord) 她的观点。真的是这样吗? 我们决定(decide: make up onmind. determine) 用实验(experiment)来找出(find out)真相。在美国的许多(dozens of)城市里,我们的记者们进行(perform: carry out)了两项试验:一项是"开门的测试" (有人会为他们扶住门吗? ),另一项是"文件(document: file, papers) 掉落(drop: fall)测试" (谁会帮助他们拾起retrieve: pick up 意外accidentally掉落的一摞文件? )。一路上记者们遇到(encounter: meet, run into, run across, come across, see) 各种类型(all types: , different, a varies of, various) 的人:不同种族、年龄、职业(profession: occupation, career) 和收入(income: earning, revenue) 水平(level: degree, stage, point, band) 的男士和女士。
虽然(though: although, however, nevertheless)90%的人通过(pass: go through, go across)了开门的测试,但只有55%的人通过了文件掉落测试。是不是当需要花费(take: spend, cost)额外的(extra: additional, added) 时间和精力(effort: energy, vigor )时,人们就不太可能(likely: maybe, probably) 去帮助他人了? 记者们发现情况并不总是这样。例如一位怀孕的(pregnant, in the family way) 妇女认为(think: believe, hold, maintain) ,弯腰(bend down: stoop) (help with) 我们拾起文件是一件很平常的事。还有另外一位名叫丽兹的女士,当她用一只手捡起(pick up) 掉在湿漉漉(wet: damp, moist)的人行道上(pavement: sidewalk, sideway) 的文件时,另外一只手正托着一个外卖(takeout)托盘(tray) ,同时她还得保持托盘上的两杯咖啡、钥匙和钱包(wallet: purse) 的平衡(balance: equilibrium, poise) 。当问及她帮忙的原因(reason: cause) 时,她说"因为我恰巧就在那儿。"
总的来说( overall: in a word, as a whole, generally) ,男士最乐于(be willing to: be ready to) 帮助别人,尤其是(especially: particularly) 当碰到(when it comes to) 文件掉落这件事时。在那些测试中,男士提供帮助的概率是63%,与此相比(compared to) ,女士中只有47%的人愿意提供帮助。当然(of course: certainly)男士对他们帮助对象的选择并非完全(entirely: completely, wholly) 一视同仁(democratic) 。所有的男士都会为女记者扶住门,而帮助女记者捡起掉落文件的人数是帮助男记者的两倍还多(more than twice) 。
到目前为止(by far: till now) ,人们所说的(cite for: explain) 愿意(willing) 特意去(go out of one's way) 帮助他人的普遍(common) 原因是他们所受的教育(upbringing: education)要求他们这么做的。"我就是这样被抚养(raise: bring up nurture) 长大的。"一位年轻女士这样说道。在布鲁克林的一个雨天,尽管(despite: in spite of, although, though) 她正费力(struggle: endeavor, strive, try one's best) 地撑着伞(umbrella) ,但她还是帮别人扶住门,不让它关上。
我们知道,(rea1ize: know, believe) 这并非是一次严格的(rigorous: strict)科学研究,但我们认为这是世界范围内现实生活中(real-world) 对于礼貌(manners: politeness) 行为的一次合理的(reasonable: rational) 测试。令人欣慰的(comforting: encouraging, delighting) 是,在某个地方数百万的人每天互相拥挤(push)着往前赶路(get ahead: advance) ,他们在这样做时还能面带微笑。嗨!如果他们在此时此地能做得很好,那么在任何地方,他们都能做得很好。
 
Passage Four
46. B
第二段中明确说:如果最糟糕的事情真的发生了,这个地下室可使全世界重构整个农业。故答案为B ,其它选项与原文不相符。
47. D
第三段说:挪威政府应农业科学家们的要求,计划在明年建设种子银行。故答案为D ,其它选项原文没有提及。
48. C
解析:从文章第四段最后一句话 "Though most are ... plant breeding." 意思是: 尽管其中多数种子已不再广泛种植,但是不同种类的植物里包含着至关重要的基因特性,在植物栽培方面仍被普遍使用。由此可以推出正确答案为C。
49. C
解析:从文章第五段第一句话 "To survive, the seeds need freezing temperatures. " 可以推出正确答案为C。
50. C
解析:倒数第二段第一句话:“当人们越来越关注世界各地现有的种子银行的安全问题时,…”,此项被提及。故答案为C 。
 [参考译文]
人们在距离北极1000 公里处的一座冰冻的(freezing-cold) 岛上劈开(cut out) 了一座山,人类(humanity: man, human being) 的未来可能存在(lie: exist)于这个混凝土(concrete)制造的巨大空间里。
这个空间被设计( design: plan, contrive) 成地下库(vault) ,里面存放了(hold) 大约200万个种子,代表(represent: typify, symbolize, stand for) 了所有己知的(known) 世界上各类(varieties of: a variety of, various) 农作物。建造(build: construct) 这个地下库是为了保护(safeguard: protect, defend) 食物供应(food supply) 免遭(against) 一些因素的破坏,比如核战争(nuclear warfare) 、气候(climate) 变化、恐怖主义(terrorism) 、海平面(sea level)上升(rise) 、地震和电力供应瘫痪(collapse: paralysis) 等。"如果最坏的( worst) 事情发生,这个地下库可以使(allow: make, let, enable) 人类在地球上重建(reconstruct )农业( agriculture ) " 全球作物多样性(diversity :variety) 托管(trust) 会主任(director) 卡里•福勒这样说过。全球作物多样性托管会是促进(promote: advance, boostfurtherencourage) 该项计划的独立性(independent) 国际性( international) 组织(organization) 。
应农作物科学家们的要求(request: requirement, demand),挪威政府(government) 正计划(plan: will, project) 来年创建(create: establish, found) 种子库。造价为300万美元的地下库将建造在挪威斯皮次卑尔根岛北极区的砂岩(sandstone )山脉上。地下库的墙有一米厚(meter-thick) ,是由钢筋混凝土(reinforced concrete) 制成的,有两个高度密封仓(airlocks)和安全性能很高(high-security) 的门来保护(protect) 地下库。
地下库里收集(collection )的种子代表了一万年以来世界各地农民所种植(breed: plant)的农产品。尽管其中的多数(most) 已经不再(no longer: not any more) 广泛(widely: extensively) 种植,但不同种类(varieties )的植物里包含(contain: include, revolve, consist in)着至关重要的(vital: important, essential, crucial) 基因(genetic)特性(property: character),在植物栽培方面仍被普遍使用(use: utilize, apply, employ) 。
这些种子需要在极低的温度下才能存活(survive: live) 。当斯皮次卑尔根岛的温度大约在零下18 摄氏度时,研究人员们计划在每年冬天都更换(replace: substitute, change, alter, modify, alter) 地下库里的空气,但即使一些灾难使地下库废弃(abandon: desert) 了,永久(permanently: forever, ever-lasting)冷冻的(frozen)土壤也会使种子保持存活(alive: living) 。即使是全球变暖(global warming) 加速( accelerate: speed up, speed, quicken) ,热量要渗透(penetrate: infiltrate, sink) 到山体地下库也要花(take) 上几十年(decade)的时间。
"这将是全世界最安全的(secure: safe) 基因库"福勒说道。"但是只有当其它种子因为某种原因( for some reason) 而消失(go: vanish, go away, disappear, vanish) 时,这里面的种子才会被使用。"
这个方案(project: plan, scheme) 是在对世界现有(existing: present)的种子库安全性(security: safety) 的担忧(concern: worry) 日益(growing: increasing) 增长时产生的。人们指责(criticize: blame) 很多种子库的安全性差,冷藏( refrigeration )系统老化(aging) ,电力(electricity )供应(supply) 易受攻击( vulnerable: fragile) 。
2005 年10 月,该项计划(scheme) 在罗马举办的联合国粮食及农业组织会议(meeting: conference, convention, congress) 上得到批准(approval: warrant ratification, grant)。一份可行性(feasibility: probability, possibility) 研究报告说,该项设施(facility) 的建设也将永远持续(last: maintain, persist) 下去。
 
Passage Five
51. C
第一段第三句话说:事实上,每个人每天从始至终心里都在设定目标。某个时间或某个地点总有要做的事情。故答案为C ,其它选项均为干扰选项。
52. C
第二段明确指出:有目标的妙处就在于,每个目标对于设立目标的人来说,是独一无二的。独一无二的同义词是special,故答案为C 。
53. B
第四段第一句话:要致力于一些超出你的水平但仍是可以实现的事情。故答案为B,其它选项不符合原文。
54. A
文章倒数第二段明确指出:记住,这些变化不会一下子发生(目标不会一夜之间实现),有些时候看起来什么都没有发生。这就是为什么设计目标需要在结果和利益上尽量细致和具体。由此可知作者的观点。故答案为A。
55. D
最后一段说:集中精力并为目标努力,才会得到想要的结果。其它选项原文没有提及,故答案为D。
[参考译文]
确立(set)目标(goal: objective, aim, target)最困难(hardest) 的部分(part: portion)可能就在第一步(step) ,即何时决定(decide: make onmind determine) )采取行动(take action) ! 有一个错误的(incorrect: false) 论断(assumption: hypothesis, assumption) 是,他们认为目标仅仅是为商人而设定的。这也是大多数人所面对的第一个障碍(barrier: obstacle, impediment) 。事实(reality) 上,每个人一天当中(throughout the day) 都会在脑海中(mentally)设立目标。总有一些时候(occasion) 需要在特定的(particular: set) 时间或特定的地点来做某件事,有些简单的例子,例如为了(in order to) 工作或跟朋友见面(meet)进行休闲(leisure)活动(activity) 而规定自己必须在某个特定(certain) 时间起床(get up)等。
对每一个设立目标的人(goal setter) 来说,拥有目标的好处(beauty: merit, benefit) 就是每个目标都有独特性(uniqueness: trait, identity )。不管目标是关于个人的(personal) 、财政的(financial) 、商业的(business: commercial)或是精神(spiritual: mental) 方面的,对个人和它们的境况来说,这些目标都是明确(specific: definite) 的。
一开始,(initially: primarily) 最重要的一步就是把这些目标写下来write down: take down)。把目标写下来会帮助你将精力集中到(focus on) 目标这一区域,同时给你惊人的(incredible: unbelievable) 力量。
要锁定(aim for) 某个超出你的能力但仍然能做得到的(achievable) 目标。如果你很容易地实现(achieve) 了目标,那么这个目标就不够远大,不足以让你的生活产生重大的(significant: important, crucial变化(change: shift),你就需要调整(adjust: adapt, gear, modify)一下目标。另一方面(on the other hand) ,如果你总是(consistently: always, frequently) 无法(miss: fail)实现目标,就要重新对其进行评估(evaluate: appraise, weigh) ,并且考虑将目标降低(lower) 一点,否则你就会变得气馁(discouraged: depressed, frustrated),并且有可能(probably: possibly, maybe, likely) 放弃(give up: drop)目标。对于你个人独特的(particular: specific) 境况(circumstance: situation) 来说,你的目标是保持持续(keep doing)发展(grow: develop) ,不断达到一个更满意的(satisfactory: satisfying, contented) 层次。
每当你达到(obtain: attain, achieve, get) 自己设立的目标时,你就给自己一个小小的奖赏(reward: prize) 。在早些时候,奖励也许仅仅(only: merely) 就是出去用餐或周末度假( vacation: holiday) 这样的小事。
记住(remember: memorize) ,改变不会在一夜之间(overnight) 发生(happen: take place, come about) ,它们在一段时间里一般不明显。基于这个原因,目标应该详细(detailed) ,尽可能明确地(specific) 说明所带来的成果(consequence: result) 和收益(benefit: profit)。
每天留(allow: set aside) 些时间来培养(educate: foster, cultivate) 自己如何对生活做出必要的(necessary )调节(adjustment) 的能力,包括听CD,或阅读一本关于励志(motivation: encouragement) 方面的书等。
一个简单的开始(start with: begin with) 制定目标的方法(method: way, means) 是在人生的主要(main: important, essential, crucial) 领域(area: field) 设立一个目标,并用1 个月、6 个月、12 个月或者5 年来实现它,再进一步将目标系统地分到每天、每周、每月中。你应集中精力(focus: concentrate) 、严格自律(discipline )地去实现你所期望(desire: expect)的所有目标。
 
Part IV Cloze (15 points)
56. C
解析:言语表达包含两个重要部分:要说什么和如何表达。故答案为C 。
57. D
解析:a wide range of 一系列的。全句意思是:表达这个词涵盖了一系列的说话特征,眼神的交流也是其中之一。故答案为D。
58. A
解析:vary from sth. to sth. 在……(范围内)变化。全句意思是:眼神的适当使用,在不同的文化背景下,各有不同。故答案为A。
59. C
解析:be expected to 应该。句意为:在一些文化背景下,女人应该垂下眼睛。故答案为C。
60. B
解析:communication settings 交流沟通的背景。故答案为B。
61. D
解析:however 然而,但是,表转拆关系。故答案为D。
62. A
 解析:whether 是否。句意为: 无论你是对个人说话,还是对一小群听众说话,或是对很多观众说话,你都应该看着他们。故答案为A。
63. B
解析:constantly持续地;intensely 强烈地,认真地;properly 适当地,完全地;desperately绝望地。全句意思是:你不必眼睛一眨不眨地盯着他们。故答案为B。
64. C
解析:in fact 事实上,固定用法搭配。故答案为C。
65. A
解析:look away 看向其它地方。句意为:当我们和别人说话时,偶尔看看其它地方,是很恰当的。故答案为A。
66. B
解析:and 表示并列关系。句意为:在对一小群人演讲时,你应该看向不同的成员:当向很多观众发表演讲时,我们应该与房间中各个方位的人做眼神的交流。故答案为B 。
67. D
解析:entire 全体的,整体的。全句意思是:看向全体观众,而不仅仅是房间中央的观众,这一点非常重要。故答案为D。
68. A
解析:so 因此,所以。全句意思是:应该尽力转动头或身体来做出适当的眼神交流。故答案为A。
69. B
解析:seated 此处作people 的后置定语,意思是:坐在……位置上的人。故答案为B。
70. C
解析:through eye contact: 通过目光接触。故答案为C。
 
 
Part V Error Detection (5 points)
71. B
解析:called 改为callinghear sb. doing sth. 是固定表达方式"听到某人做某事"。
72. C
解析:have 改为hasMany a + 单数可数名词做主语,其后谓语用单数。
73. C
解析:waited 改为have been waiting/have waited。句意为:我从8 点一直等到她出现。应该用表示一直等到现在的时态。用waited 则表示等的动作早已结束。
74. B
解析:him 改为them。句子的主语是learners,是复数,其相应的代词也应该是复数形式。
75. A
解析:as you know that 改为“as it is known that“。”as it is known that” 为固定表达方式,表示"众所皆知"。
76. B
解析:four times of the size 改为four times as much as the size 。这是倍数的固定表达方式。...times as much/many as... 。
77. B
解析:receiving 改为receivedby 一词表示被动,在被动用法中,动词应该用过去分词形式。
78. C
解析:have not done 改为had not donewish 后是虚拟语气的用法,与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的语法格式应该是hadnot done。
79. B
解析:删除moreprefer 本身就是"更喜欢"的意思,含有比较级的意义,不需要再加上more 构成比较级。
80. C
解析:as 改为what。画线处应该是介词of 的宾语, 应该用what。
 
Key to 2008 English Test
                          Paper Two
 
Part I Translation (20 points)
Section A
工程师们正在开发一种新型的网络接入技术,这种技术能够快速地传输众多的数据。快到可以使网上冲浪者都感到惊奇。这种技术将打开一条通道。通过这条通道,数据传输速度要比现行的速度快上千倍。如果一切按计划进行,所有人将很快享受到无比快速的数据传输。这可能有助于解决关于快速增长的因特网传输需求的问题。这项技术需要一些新的软件和与个人电脑相连的光纤。但除此之外,无需改动基础设施。
Section B
Currently with the rapid development of economy in China, the comparatively heavy pressure of energy supply is largely related to the phase of social and economic development. However, no matter what stage we belong to, over-consuming energy will put us into the dilemma of energy shortage, environment pollution and ecological disruption and we will be inevitably punished.
 
Part II Writing (15 points)
范文
Self-confidence Is a Key to Success
From the above picture, we can see that a man who is mounting for success is determined by self-confidence to some degree. Self-confidence itself is really significant in our way to achievement.
The primary reasons to support my point of view are as follows. To start with, a man is more likely to improve his capability by accepting challenges if he is confident. We can also see that it is certain that he would like to face the difficult position instead of escaping from it. In dealing with difficulties, he would learn more in order to develop his features and integrity step by step. Last but not least, he would like to grasp chances to show himself that he is actually sure to himself. By opportunities, a man could narrow the distance to success.
From what I have discussed above, a conclusion should be reached safely, that is, being self-confident is an absolutely positive, useful, and meaningful element for being successful.