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2009年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试真题及解析
 
出自:  发布时间:2012年11月11日

 

同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语(英语)水平全国统一考试2009年真题
Paper One 试卷一
(90minutes)
PartⅠ Dialogue Communication (10 minutes, 10 points, 1 for each)
Section A Dialogue Completion
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialogues between two speakers, each followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the answer that best suits the situation to complete the dialogue. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.

1.  A: Helen.You look great!You’remuch slimmer than last time I saw you.
 B:     Actually,I’vebeenonadietandI’vebeendoingakeep-fitclass, too.
A.No, thanks.                  B.Well, yes.
C.You are flattering me.   D.Are you kidding?
2.A:I’msosorry.Ishouldn’thavethrownyourviolinaway.Whydidn’t youtell me it was a birthday present from your Dad?
B:       What is done is done.
 

 

C.Forget it.                    D.That’s fine.
3. A: It is really hard to maintain contact when people move around so much.
 B:               
A.You’re unlucky to have lost contact with your friends.
B.That is right. I have been out of touch with my friends.
C.Is it? People just drift apart indeed!
D.I ask them to keep me informed about what they are doing.
4. A: Hi, John, how are you? I heard you were sick.
 B: They must have confused me with somebody else.      
A.I was sick last week.  B.I could not agree with you more.
C.I’ve never felt better.         D.So you are right.
5. A: It is not like George to be late for an appointment.
 B:                     He’s always punctual.
A.No way.   B.Anyway he’s late.
C.I don’t think so.            D.You’re right.
 
Section B   Dialogue Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short conversations between a man and a woman. At the end of each conversation there is a question followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to the question from the 4 choices by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
6. Man:Thatwasanabsolutelydeliciousmeal.Yourcookingisalways superb but this time you have excelled yourself.
Woman: I am glad you enjoyed it. It is a recipe I haven’t tried before.
Question: What does the man think of the woman’s cooking?
A.It is as good as always.
B.It is good enough for something new.
C.It is good, but not as good as before.
D.It is better than usual.
7. Man: Do you think that Bob is serious about Sally?
 Woman:Well,Iknowthis.I’veneverseenhimgooutsooftenwiththesame girl.
 Question: What conclusion can we draw from the woman’s statement?
A.Bob is serious about Sally.
B.Bob never goes steady with a girl.
C.Bob will soon change his girlfriend.
D.Bob is not serious about Sally.
8. Man: Everybody’s helping out with the dinner. Would you make the salad?
Woman:Anything but that.
Question: What does the woman mean?
A.She does not want any salad.
B.She will make the salad.
C.She wants some salad.
D.She’d rather do some other jobs.
9. Man:You know what?You should invest the money yourself.
   Woman: That had crossed my mind.
   Question: What does the woman mean?
A.The idea had bothered her.    B.She had invested the money.
C.The idea had occurred to her.   D.She wouldn’t give it a try.
10. Woman: Where do you plan to go for dinner?
 Man:IwasthinkingofgoingtoJoe’s.It’sastone’sthrowaway.Besides, the environment is good.
  Question: What can we learn about Joe’s?
A. It is not far from here  B. It is not expensive.
C. It is an interesting place.
D. It is known for its specialty.
 
Part II  Vocabulary (10 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 for each) 
Section A
Directions: In this section, there are 10 sentences, each with one word or phrase underlined. Choose the one from the 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
11.Likeflowersthathavebeenwaiting allwinterto blossom,touristsareeagerto burst forth with their cameras.
A.survive B.breeze C.revive     D.bloom
12The applications of genetic engineering are abundant and choosing one appropriate for this case can be rather difficult.
A. sufficient    B. plentiful  C. adequate   D. countable
13.The newly elected president has pledged $13 million to the automobile industry for its survival.
A.promised   B.prepared   C.disposed  D.delivered
14.TheAmericans recognize that the UN can be the channel for greater diplomatic activity.
A.place   B.medium   C.resort    D.tunnel
15.Thegrowthofpart-timeandflexibleworkingpatternallowsmorewomento take advantage of job opportunities.
A.make use of                  B. catch up with
C.cast light on      D. get rid of
16.Nobodycanhelpbutbefascinatedbytheworldintowhichheistakenbythe science fiction.
A.impressed B.amused   C.attracted       D.puzzled
17.Senator James Meeks has called off a boycott of Chicago Public Schools, organized to protest Illinois’ education funding system.
A.reclaimed B.proposed  C.indulged     D.canceled
18.The new book focuses on the concept that to achieve and maintain total health, people need physical, social and emotional well-being.
A.gain    B.attainC.acquire  D.gather
19.The16percentfareincreasewouldbringChicagofaresinlinewiththoseof other big cities.
A.in cooperation with          B.in agreement with
C.in connection with D.in association with
20.ItistruethatLondonisoftensunless,dampandraw,thoughtheoccasional sunny days seem all the more attractive by contrast.
A.mild  B.chilly   C.moist       D.cloudy
 
Section B
Directions: In this section, there are 10 incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
21.Researchshowsheavycoffeedrinkingis         asmallincreaseinblood pressure, but not enough to increase the risk for high blood pressure.
A. associated with             B.compared with
C.  attributed toD.referred to
22.Alarge                 ofthesunlightneverreachestheearthwhile infra-redheat given off by the earth is allowed to escape freely.
A.proportion  B.ratioC.rate D.fraction
23.It is amusing that she            her father’s bad temper as well as her mother’s good looks.
A.retained B.inherited C.preserved D.maintained
24.                  the few who have failed in their examination, all the other students in the hall are in very high spirits.
A.In spite thatB.But for
C.For the sake of             D.Apart from
25.The decline in moral standards, which has long concerned social analysts, has at last         the attention of averageAmericans.
A.clarified B.cultivated C.captured     D.characterized
26.Our neighbor Uncle Johnson is a stubborn man. Needless to say, we tried       to make him change his mind.
A.in short B.in secret C.in danger      D.in vain
27.The western media was astonished to see that China’s GDP      
by almost 40% just in two years’time.
A.flourished B.floated  C.roared       D.soared
28.Unemploymentseemstobethe           socialprobleminthisareaandmay undermine social stability.
A.primitive              B.prevalent
C.previous                 D.premature
29.Manypeople,whenill,seetheirdoctorsandaskthemto      something that will make them feel better.
A.prescribe   B.describe C.revise D.devise
30.Facing growing costs and shrinking tax        , the government is now threatening to cut funding for environmental protection programs.
A.budget        B.collection  C.revenue     D.profit
 
Part Ⅲ  Reading Comprehension(45 minutes, 30 points, 1 for each)
Directions: There are 5 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by 6 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
Passage One
The other day my son asked me if he could ride up to his elementary school on his bike and meet his friend. He wanted the both of them to ride back to our house so they could play video games and jump on the trampoline (蹦床). I have to admit, part of me wanted to say no. We can go pick him up or his parents can bring him over here, I thought. But my son is eleven years old now. And after all, I do let him ride his bike to school. But I also drive my daughter to school and I can see him on the way, making sure he is getting there safely.
My husband thinks I am too overprotective. I don’t dare to let my children walk anywhere without one of us going along. As you pull out of our neighborhood, there is a shopping center across the street. My son always asks if he can ride his bike or walk over to the drugstore by himself. But crossing that street is just too dangerous. The cars fly around the corner like they’re driving in a car race. What if he gets hit? What if some teenage bullies are hanging out in the parking lot?
I want so much to give my children the freedom that I enjoyed having when I was growing up but I hesitate to do so because there are dangers around every corner. Too many kidnaps, too many sex offenders. I went online and discovered there are 41 sex offenders in my area alone.
I honestly don’t think my mom worried about such things when her children were young.
Growing up in the 1970s was indeed a different time. I never wore a helmet(头盔)when I rode a bike. We were all over the neighborhood, on our bikes and on foot, coming home for dinner and then back out again until dark. We rode in the back of the truck, didn’t’t wear seatbelts. I walked to and from school every day…
31.What did the author feel reluctant to let her son do?
A.Meet his friend.                                
B.Play video games.
C.Ride his bike on streets.     
D.Jump on the trampoline.
32. What does the author mean when she says, “but my son is eleven years old now”?
A. He is a bit too young to go out alone.
B. He is old enough to be given some freedom now.
C. He has reached the legal age for riding a bike.
D. He can’t protect himself from road hazards.
33. Given her husband’s attitude towards bringing up kids, he would most probably_______.
A. drive his son to school to ensure safety.
B. follow his son all the way to school and back.
C. ask the other boy’s parents to bring him over here.
D. give his son more freedom in deciding what to do.
34. Which of the following is NOT considered by the author as a potential threat to kids?
A. The drugstore.              B. Teenager bullies.                      
C. Child abusers.              D. Cars racing by.
35. What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A. The social security back in the 1970s was no better than it is today.
B. Today’s children enjoy more freedom than those in the 1970s.
C. Children in the 1970s enjoyed more freedom than those today.     
D. Children today are more obedient to their parents.
36. What is the author’s main purpose in writing this passage?
A. To show her concern over the increasing crime rate in her   neighborhood.
B. To compare today’s social environment with that of the 1970s.
C. To describe her hesitation as to how much freedom she should give her son.
D. To express her worry about both safety and security in her area.
 
Passage Two
You may have wondered why the supermarkets are all the same. It is not because the companies that operate them lack imagination. It is because they all aim at persuading people to buy things.
In the supermarket, it takes a while for the mind to get into a shopping mode. This is why the area immediately inside the entrance is known as the “decompression zone”. People need to slow down and look around, even if they are regulars. In sales terms this area is a bit of loss, so it tends to be used more for promotion.
Immediately inside,the first thing shoppers may come to is the fresh fruit and vegetables section. For shoppers, this makes no sense. Fruit and vegetables can be easily damaged, so they should be bought at the end, not the beginning, of a shopping trip. But what is at work here? It turns out that selecting good fresh food is a way to start shopping, and it makes people feel less guilty about reaching for the unhealthy stuff later on.
Shoppers already know that everyday items, like milk, are invariably placed towards the back of a store to provide more opportunities to tempt customers. But supermarkets know shoppers know this, so they use other tricks, like placing popular items halfway along a section so that people have to walk all along the aisle looking for them. The idea is to boost “dwell time”: the length of time people spend in a store.
Traditionally retailers measure “footfall”, as the number of people entering a store is known, but those numbers say nothing about where people go and how long they spend there. But nowadays, a piece of technology can fill the gap: the mobile phone. Path Intelligence, a British company tracked people’s phones at Gunwharf Quays, a large retailer centre in Portsmouth--not by monitoring calls, but by plotting the positions of handsets as they transmit automatically to cellular networks. It found that when dwell time rose 1% sales rose 1.3%.
Such techniques are increasingly popular because of a deepening understanding about how shoppers make choices. People tell market researchers that they make rational decisions about what to buy, considering things like price, selection or convenience. But subconscious forces, involving emotion and memories, are clearly also at work.
37. In Paragraph2, “decompression zone” is the area meant to_____.
A. prepare shoppers for the mood of buying
B. offer shoppers a place to have a rest
C. encourage shoppers to try new products
D. provide shoppers with discount information
38. Putting fruit-and-vegetable section near the entrance takes advantage of shoppers’ ______.
A. common sense                   B. shopping habits
C. shopping psychology              D. concerns with time                           
39. Path Intelligence uses a technology to ______.
A. measure how long people stay at a store 
B. count how many people enter a store
C. find out what people buy in a store
D. monitor what people say and do in a store
40. What happened at Gunwharf Quays showed that sales______.
A. was reversely linked to dwell time
B. was in direct proportion to dwell time
C. was affected more by footfall than by dwell time   
D. was affected more by dwell time than by footfall   
41. The author argues that shoppers______.
A. exert more influence on stores than they imagine
B. are more likely to make rational choices than they know
C. have more control over what they buy than they assume
D. tend to make more emotional decisions than they think
42. The best title for the passage is _______.
A. New Technology Boosts Stores’ Sales
B. How Shoppers Make Choices in Stores
C. The Science behind Stores’ Arrangements
D. Rational and Irrational Ways of Shopping
 
Passage Three
About a century ago more people would not have appreciated the study of a foreign language as they do today. Gone are those days when patriotism towards one’s own language was a major obstacle to learning foreign languages, a time when most nations were trying to throw their alien rulers out of their countries in their freedom struggles. Gone are those days when people were proud of their mother or father tongues and considered that their languages alone will suffice the need to survive. Language skills today have become as important as other business and career skills like IT, vocational or professional skills. Thus learning a foreign language today has become essential for an individual whether it is for careers, growing a business, or even to make an impression.
All that one needs to possess these days is a drive to learn a foreign language and there are all kinds of institutions and courses that teach various foreign languages like French, German, Spanish, and Japanese. Today’s world economy has bridged the barriers of race, sex, color and religion and the world has become a smaller place. Today’s businesses also demand language skills to expand and grow in other countries. Tens and hundreds of businesses world wide are expanding and growing their businesses by promoting them in countries other than their countries of origin. The tremendous growth of the Internet has further increased the demand for language skills. In Canada an official rule also says that all commercial establishments must have their websites created both in English and French, the official languages of the country.
Language can also ease race and border barriers. You are more welcome in an alien nation if you know the language of the people there and can converse in their tongue. People in these countries immediately respect you and think you care about their culture as much as they do because in any culture language is the key identity.
43. One of the reasons for not studying a foreign language in the past is _______.
A. it was too difficult                    B. it was not allowed
C. it was taught by foreign rulers           D. it was seen as disloyalty                   
44. According to the article, which of the following is true?
A. Foreign language skills are of vital importance.
B. People’s language skills are better than in the past.
C. It’s easier nowadays to learn a foreign language.
D. People today are not proud of their native language.
45. What does “to make an impression” (Paragraph 1) probably mean?
A. To remember things.                B. To express ideas.
C. To be liked by others.                D. To show respect.                            
46. The world has become smaller because of _________.
A. business expression                 B. the growth of the Internet
C. the learning of foreign languages       D. a globalized economy                        
47. According to the article, the growth of the Internet requires_______.
A. more bilingual websites
B. more foreign language skills
C. better command of English
D. more commercial establishments
48. People in a foreign country will treat you with more respect if you speak their language because ___________.
A. they think you understand their culture
B. they think you love their country
C. it’s easier for them to communicate with you
D. they believe you are a good language learner
 
Passage Four
All day long, you are affected by large forces. Genes influence your intelligence and willingness to take risks. Social dynamics unconsciously shape your choices. Instantaneous perceptions set off neutral reactions in your head without you even being aware of them.
Over the past few years, scientists have made a series of exciting discoveries about how these deep patterns influence daily life. Nobody has done more to bring these discoveries to public attention than Malcolm Gladwell.
Gladwell’s new book Outliers seems at first glance to be a description of exceptionally talented individuals. But in fact, it’s another book about deep patterns. Exceptionally successful people are not lone pioneers who created their own success, he argues. They are the lucky beneficiaries of social arrangements.
Gladwell’s non-controversial claim is that some people have more opportunities than others. Bill Gates was lucky to go to a great private school with its own computer at the dawn of the information revolution.
Gladwell’s book is being received by reviewers as a call to action for the Obama Age. It could lead policy makers to finally reject policies built on the assumption that people are coldly rational profit-maximizing individuals. It could cause them to focus more on policies that foster relationships, social bonds and cultures of achievement.
Yet, I can’t help but feel that Gladwell and others who share his emphasis are preoccupied with the coolness of the discoveries. They’ve lost sight of the point at which the influence of social forces ends and the influence of the self-initiating individual begins.
Most successful people begin with two beliefs: the future can be better than the present, and I have the power to make it so. They were often showered by good fortunes, but relied at crucial moments upon achievements of individual will. These people also have an extraordinary ability to consciously focus their attention. Control of attention is the ultimate individual power. People who can do that are not prisoners of the stimuli around them. They can choose from the patterns in the world and lengthen their time horizons.
Gladwell’s social determinism overlooks the importance of individual character and individual creativity. And it doesn’t fully explain the genuine greatness of humanity’s talents. As the classical philosophers understood, examples of individual greatness inspire achievement more reliably than any other form of education.
49. In Paragraph2, “these deep patterns” refers to all of the following EXCEPT_______.    .
A. genes                              B. social dynamics
C. neutral reactions              D. instantaneous perceptions                      
50. According to the author, Gladwell’s new book Outliers is  mainly______.
A. about the importance of social arrangements to personal success
B. a descriptive study of exceptionally talented individuals
C. to discuss why some people have more opportunities than others
D. to explain why Bill Gates is much luckier than others
51. It can be seen from Paragraph 5 that Gladwell’s book________.
A. is beginning to influence Obama’s policies
B. has become quite influential
C. has received severe criticisms
D. assumes that people just pursue maximum profits
52. According to the author, the most fundamental individual power is ________.
A. control of attention              B. individual will                               
C. a good character                 D. exceptional creativity
53. The author believes that individual greatness is more closely related to_________.
A. social forces and genes
B. good luck and education
C. individual genes and good education
D. individual character and creativity
54. This passage is probably a ________.
A. book report                     B. book review
C. political essay                   D. news report
 
Passage Five
A very important world problem is the increasing number of people who actually inhabit this planet. The limited amount of land and land resources will soon be unable to support the huge population if it continues to grow at its present rate.
So why is this huge increase in population taking place? It is really due to the spread of the knowledge and practice of what is becoming known as “Death Control”. You have no doubt heard of the term “Birth Control”. “Death Control” is something rather different. It recognizes the work of the doctors and scientists who now keep alive people who, not very long ago, would have died of a variety of then incurable diseases. Through a wide variety of technological innovations that include farming methods and the control of deadly diseases, we have found ways to reduce the rate at which we die. However, this success is the very cause of the greatest threat to mankind.
If we examine the amount of land available for this ever-increasing population, we begin to see the problem. If everyone on the planet had an equal share of land, we would each have about 50,000 square meters. This figure seems to be quite encouraging until we examine the amount of usable land we actually have. More than three-fifths of the world’s land cannot produce food.
Obviously, with so little land to support us, we should be taking great care not to reduce it further. But we are not! Instead, we are consuming its “capital”--its nonrenewable fossil fuels and other mineral deposits that took millions of years to form but which are now being destroyed in decades. We are also doing the same with other vital resources not usually thought of as being nonrenewable such as fertile soils, groundwater and the millions of other species that share the earth with us.
It is a very common belief that the problems of the population explosion are caused mainly by poor people living in poor countries who do not know enough to limit their reproduction. This is not true, the actual number of people in an area is not as important as the effect they have on nature. Developing countries do have an effect on their environment, but it is the populations of richer countries that have a far greater impact on the earth as a whole.
55. According to the article, what contributes to the population increase?
A. Birth explosion.                                B. Birth Control.
C. Technological innovations.                D. Death Control.                           
56. The word “incurable” in Paragraph 2 means________.
A. common                  B. epidemic
C. unknown                  D. untreatable                               
57. There isn’t enough land to support human beings because_________.
A. most of the world’s land is unusable
B. there are more seas than land in the world
C. the world’s land has already been taken up
D. the world’s land is not distributed equally
58. In Paragraph 4 the winter implies that fertile soils are________.
A. limited                   B. renewable
C. nonrenewable              D. productive                               
59. What does “to limit their reproduction” in the last paragraph mean?
A. To control death.                    B. To produce less goods.
C. To practice birth control.              D. To increase production.                  
60. What do you think the writer is really concerned about?
A. Long life spans.                    B. Population increase.
C. The success of “Death Control”        D. Overuse of resources.           
 
PartIV Cloze (15 minutes, 15 points, 1 for each)
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blank there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
Nuclear energy is an efficient and convenient substitute for conventional forms of energy which were found in special geographical locations. Large amounts of ___61___ and effort are required to ___62___ these locations. Once the sites are found, men and equipment must be brought to tap and use these sources of energy. However, a large proportion of such sites are found only in far and ___63__ places. This increases the difficulties of ___64___ these forms of energy. With nuclear energy, such difficulties are at present. Nuclear reactors can easily be built anywhere, and man does not have to compete with the___65___ of nature in order to obtain the energy. For equal amounts of energy, nuclear energy is much more convenient and inexpensive to obtain than conventional sources of energy.
With nuclear energy, the amount of pollution is greatly reduced. ___66___ the production of nuclear energy is based on the fission (裂变) of atoms, pollution is kept to a very low level. The energy produced in the reactors is converted into heat and electricity, and these have___67___ or no pollution at all. Conventional forms of fuel, ___68___, produce large amounts of pollution.
Production of nuclear energy uses the___69___ of the fission of atoms; thus, ___70___ amounts of energy can be obtained from it. The world’s reserves of oil, coal and natural gas are running ___71___ at a tremendous rate and current estimates predict that___72___of the 21st century, most of these conventional fuels will be used up. Nuclear energy is the exception___73___ this gloomy prediction. Through splitting and fusing atoms, large amounts of energy can be produced, and ___74___ this process can go on and on until all our energy needs are satisfied. The___75___ of nuclear energy as boundless source of energy is indeed great, and we must harness it whenever possible as conventional fuels will not be around much longer.

61. A. capital  
B. incentive  
C. interest
D. currency
62. A. point            
B. recognize
C. label
D. identify
63. A. single                             
B. isolated
C. sole
D. solitary
64. A. concentrating         
B. detecting    
C. selecting
D. harnessing
65. A. potentials   
B. powers
C. forces
D. strengths
66. A. If                
B. While
C. Since
D. Though
67. A. much  
B. little
C. more    
D. less
68. A. as a result
B. in general
C. in effect
D.on the other hand
69. A. rule
B. process
C. principle    
D. function
70. A. incomplete             
B. definite
C. defined
D. infinite
71. A. up           
B. out
C. away
D. down
72. A. by the end                   
B. at the end
C. in the end
D. to the end
73. A. in                        
B. for
C. to
D. of
74. A. substantially                       
B. additionally
C.theoretically
D. effectively
75. A. potential                
B. use
C. popularity
D. transformation

 
Paper Two
 (60 minutes)
Part I Translation (30 minutes, 20 points, 10 for each section)
Section A
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
 
Third-hand smoke is tobacco smoke contamination that lingers in carpets, clothes and other materials hours or even days after a cigarette is put out. According to a study, a large number of people, particularly smokers, have no idea that third-hand smoke is a health hazard for people. Of the 1,500 smokers and nonsmokers surveyed, the vast majority agreed that second-hand smoke is dangerous. But when asked whether they agreed with the statement, “Breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm your health,” only 65% of nonsmokers and 43% of smokers answered “yes”.
 
Section B
Directions: Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
 
有朝一日我身为人母,我会带着孩子去野营。我会让他们体验在篝火(campfire)上烧烤食物的乐趣,我会告诉他们,在草地上睡觉并不脏。我会让他们知道,天上的星星不止是童话故事的素材,还有实际的用途,例如可以为迷路的人指引方向,这样的户外活动也是一种教育。
 
Part II Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)
Directions: In this part, you are to write within 30 minutes a composition of no less than 150 words under the title of “My Opinion about Blog”. Your composition should be based on the clues given below. Please remember to write it clearly on the COMPOSITION SHEET.
Blog is an on-line diary that one keeps on his frequently updated personal web page. Blog often reflects the personality and experiences of the author.
1. Introductory remarks.
2. My opinion about blog:
For or against, and reasons, OR What I think blog can do.
3. Conclusion.
同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语(英语)水平全国统一考试
2009年英语真题答案及解析
    Key to 2009 English Test
   Paper One
Part I Dialogue Communication(10 points)
Section A
1. B
解析:Speaker A赞美对方越来越苗条了。Speaker B回答的后半句意为:事实上,我一直在节食并且正在上健身课。这显然是对Speaker A的赞美表示肯定。B 项“嗯,是的。”符合西方人的习惯以及前后的逻辑。A项“不用了,谢谢。”C项“过奖了。”D项“你没开玩笑吧? ”这三个选项都不符合对赞美回答的语境。故答案为B。
2. C
解析:Speaker A将对方的小提琴扔了,请求对方原谅。在口语交际中别人请求自己原谅,一般都会说“没关系”/“算了吧”。C项“算了吧。”故答案为CA项“没问题。”B项“不用担心。”D项“很好。”这三个选项都不符合题中的语境。
3. B
解析:A: 在人们如此频繁地四处奔走的情况下,保持联系太因难了。A项“你很不幸,和朋友失去了联系。”B项“是这样的,我已经和许多朋友失去联系了。”C项“是吗?人们确实慢慢地疏远了。”D项“我让他们告诉我他们在干什么。”其中B项最符合语境,并且表达礼貌得体。
4. C
解析:A: 你好,约翰,听说你病了。根据B回答的前半部分:他们肯定是把我和别人弄混了。C项“我感觉再好不过了。”可以判断为正确答案。A项“我上周生病了。”B项“我完全同意你的观点。”D项“所以说你是对的。”这三个选项跟说话人B的前半部分回答意思相矛盾。
5. D
解析:A: 乔治不像是那种约会迟到的人。根据B回答的后半部分:他总是很守时。D项“你是对的。”可以判断为正确答案。A项“不可能。”B项“不管怎么说他还是迟到了。”C项“我不这样认为。”这三个选项与说话人B后半部分的回答相矛盾。
 
Section B
6. D
解析:男士:这顿饭真是太好吃了!你的厨艺一直都很精湛,但这一次你超越了自己。由此可见,男士认为女士这一次做的饭比以往任何一次都好吃。故答案为D。
7. A
解析:男士:你觉得鲍勃对萨利是认真的吗?女士:我从未见过鲍勃和同一个女孩约会过这么多次。从女士的回答我们可以看出女士认为鲍勃对萨利是认真的。故答案为A。
8. D
解析:男士:大家都在帮忙做晚餐,你来做沙拉好吗?女士:除了做沙拉让我做什么都行。从女士的回答可以看出,她不想做沙拉,宁愿做一些其他的工作。故答案为D。
9. C
解析:男士:你知道吗,你应该自己投资。女士:我曾经有这个想法。从女士的回答可以看出她曾经想过自己去投资。C项“她曾经有过这个想法。”可以判断为正确答案。A项“这个想法曾经困扰过她。”B项“她曾经投资过。”D项“她不愿意尝试。”这三个信息都未在女士的回答中体现出来。
10. A
解析:女士:你打算去哪吃晚饭?男士:我想去琼记餐馆吃饭,这家餐馆离这里很近,而且,那里的环境也不错。从男士的回答可以得出关于这家餐馆的两个信息:一是那家餐馆离说话人很近,二是那家餐馆环境很好。所以A项“那家餐馆离这里不远。”为正确答案。B项“那家餐馆不贵。”C项“那家餐馆是个有趣的地方。”D项“那家餐馆因其专业性而出名。”这三个选项都未在男士的回答中体现出来。
 
Part II Vocabulary (10 points)
Section A
11. D
【解析】blossom开花。survive幸存,活下来;breeze吹微风;revive恢复,苏醒;bloom开花。根据题意,D项是blossom的动词形式,表示“开花”。故答案为D。
【句意】像鲜花酝酿了整个冬天才绽放一样,游客们迫不及待地拿着相机照相。
12. B
【解析】abundant大量的。sufficient足够的;plentiful丰富的,大量的;adequate充分的,足够的;countable可计算的。根据题意,这里是说遗传工程的应用很多,abundant大量的,而plentiful也可表示“大量的”。故答案为B。
【句意】基因工程技术的应用非常丰富,选择一种适合这种情况的相当困难。
13. A
【解析】pledge保证,许诺。promise承诺;prepare准备;dispose处理,处置;deliver递送,交付。根据题意,pledge在句中表示“许诺”只有promise表示“承诺”。故答案为A。
【句意】新当选的总统承诺要投入1300万美元拯救汽车工业。
14. B
【解析】channel渠道,通道。place地方; medium媒介,工具; resort 度假胜地; tunnel地道。根据题意,channel在这里的意思引申为“媒介,中介”只有medium和它意思相近。故答案为B。
【句意】美国承认联合国会成为更大外交活动的渠道。
15. A
【解析】take advantage of利用,使用。Make use of利用,使用;catch up with赶上;cast light on阐明,使人了解; get rid of除掉,去掉。根据题意,take advantage of是“利用,使用”的意思,与make use of同义。故答案为A。
【句意】增长的业余以及灵活的工作模式允许更多的妇女好好利用工作机会。
16. C
【解析】fascinate使着迷,使极感兴趣。impress给……以深刻印象;amuse使人发笑;attract吸引,引起注意;puzzle使迷惑。根据题意,fascinate在句中表示“吸引”与attract同义。故答案为C Nobody can help but相当于Everybody can’t help but。
【句意】没有人能够忍住不被科幻小说迷人的世界所吸引。
17. D
【解析】call off取消。reclaim利用,收回;propose提议,建议;indulge放纵,容许;cancel取消,废除。根据题意,call off 在句中表示“取消”与cancel同义。故答案为D。
【句意】参议员詹姆士•米克取消了芝加哥公立大学里的一场联合抵制,这场抵制是为了反对伊利诺依州的教育基金制度的。
18.B
【解析】achieve取得,获得。gain获得,收获;attain实现,达到;acquire获得;gather聚集,集合。根据题意,achieve在句中表示“实现”而选项中只有attain有这个意思。故答案为B。
【句意】这本新书聚焦于这样一个概念,即要想获得和保持身体全面健康,人们需要生理、社会及情感上的幸福康乐。
19. B
【解析】in line with与……一致。in cooperation with与……合作;in agreement with与……一致;in connection with与……有关;in association with与……联合。根据题意,in line with表示“与一……致”而选项中只有in agreement with有这个意思。故答案为B。
【句意】票价上涨16%会使芝加哥与其他城市的票价保持一致。
20. C
【解析】damp潮湿的。mild温柔的,温和的;chilly寒冷的;moist潮湿的;cloudy多云的。根据题意,damp表示“潮湿的”而选项中只有moist有这个意思。故答案为C。
【句意】伦敦确实是经常没有阳光,潮湿阴冷,然而相比之下偶尔有阳光的日子似乎更加迷人。
 
Section B
21. A
【解析】研究发现,大量喝咖啡与血压微量升高有关。 be associated with与……有关系;be compared with和……相比较;be attributed to归因于;refer to无被动语态。根据题意,此处应填“与……有关”。故答案为A。
【句意】研究发现大量喝咖啡与血压微量升高有关系,但还不至于增加高血压的风险。
22. A
【解析】a large proportion of一大部分; in a ratio of以……的比例; at a rate of以的……速率;a fraction of一小部分。give off 释放出,发出。根据题意“部分”用proportion表示。故答案为A。
【句意】一大部分阳光从未到达地球,但是地球放射的红外线却可以自由地穿过大气层。
23. B
【解析】retain保持;inherit继承;preserve维持;maintain保持。根据题意“继承”用inherit表示。故答案为B。
【句意】有趣的是,她既继承了她母亲的迷人外表,也继承了父亲的坏脾气。
24. D
【解析】in spite that不过;but for要不是;for the sake of因为;apart from除去。根据题意“除了……”用apart from表示。故答案为D。【句意】除了几个在这次考试中不及格的人之外,其他在大厅里的学生都情绪高昂。
25. C
【解析】clarify使清楚,澄清;cultivate耕作,培养;capture俘获,夺取;characterize以……为特征。这里capture the attention of等同于catch the attention of “引起……的注意”。故答案为C。
【句意】长期为社会分析家所关注的道德标准的降低,最终引起了普通美国民众的注意。
26. D
【解析】in short简而言之,总之;in secret偷偷的,暗暗的;in danger危险的;in vain徒劳的,白费力气的。故答案为D。
【句意】我们的邻居约翰森叔叔是个倔强的人。不用说,让他改变主意只是白费功夫。
27. D
【解析】flourish繁荣,茂盛;float漂浮;roar咆哮;soar高飞,猛增。根据题意,“GDP 增长”用soar表示。其他选项与题意无关。故答案为D。
【句意】西方媒体看到中国的GDP在两年之内猛增了近40%,都很惊讶。
28. B
【解析】 primitive原始的,早期的;prevalent普遍的,盛行的;previous先前的,以前的;premature过早的,提前的。根据题意,此处应填prevalent,表示“普遍的”。故答案为B。
【句意】失业似乎是这个地区普遍的社会问题,这有可能会破坏社会稳定。
29. A
【解析】 prescribe开药方;describe描述;revise修订;devise 想出,设计。“开药”或“开处方”用prescribe表示。故答案为A。
【句意】许多人在生病的时候去看医生,并让他们给自己开点药来缓解病情。
30. C
【解析】budget预算;collection收集;revenue财政收入,税收;profit利益。“税收”用tax revenue表示,是固定用法。故答案为C。
【句意】面对费用的增长和税收的萎缩,政府现在扬言要削减环保项目的资金技入。
 
 
Part III Reading Comprehension (30 points)
Passage One
31. C
文章第一段提到儿子想骑车去学校接他的朋友一起来家玩,但是作者很不情愿儿子这么做,后文作者又说她可以开车去把儿子的朋友接来,由此可以看出,作者并不是不愿意儿子去见朋友,而是不放心他自己骑车。故答案为C。
32. B
由“But my son is eleven years old now. And after all, 1 do let him ride his bike to school.”可知,作者觉得儿子已经大了,应该拥有他自己的自由了。故答案为B。
33. D
由“My husband thinks I am too overprotective.”可知,丈夫认为我对儿子保护过度了。可以看出,丈夫认为应该给儿子适当的自由去决定他自己想做的事情。故答案为D。
34. A
由“ ...cars fly around the corner ... teenage bullies are hanging out ... Too many kidnaps, too many sex offenders.”可知, B 、C 、D 三项在文中都有体现。故答案为A。
35. C
文章的最后一段讲述了在20世纪70年代长大的孩子与如今的孩子完全不同,他们拥有很大的自由空间。由此可以推断出,70年代的孩子跟如今的孩子相比,享有更多的自由。故答案为C。
36. C
文章从作者不放心儿子自己骑车去学校开始讲起,讲述了现代社会存在的许多安全问题,并且对比自己小时候的场景,表明她很想给孩子自由,但是给多少的自由却是作者犹豫的事情。选项D是干扰项,其实它只是作者犹豫给孩子多少自由的主要原因,并非主旨。故答案为C。
[参考译文] 
有一天,儿子问我能不能让他自己骑车(ride up)去小学(elementary school: primary school)和他的朋友见面(meet)。他想和朋友一起骑车回我们家,这样他们就能一起玩电子游戏(video games: computer games),一起蹦床(trampoline)。不得不承认(admit: acknowledge, confess, concede),我很不情愿答应他。我觉得我们可以开车去把他朋友接来(pick up: meet),或者他朋友的家长把他送来(bring over) 也行。但是儿子今年已经11岁了。最终(after all: finally, at last, ultimately) 我还是允许(let: permit, allow, grant)他自己骑车去学校。但是我还会开车送女儿去上学,这样我就能在路上看见儿子,确保(make sure: insure, assure)他安全(safe: secure)到达(get: arrive, reach)学校。
丈夫认为我对儿子保护(protect: defend,safeguard,preserve, maintain, conserve)过度(over)了。如果我们俩没有一个人跟着孩子的话,我就不敢让孩子随便乱跑(walk anywhere: run about, cut about)。一出(pull out of: get out of)我们居住的社区(neighborhood: community),街对面就有家购物中心(shopping center: plaza, mall, department store)。儿子总是问我能不能让他自己骑车或者步行去街对面的杂货店(drugstore: grocery)。但是横穿(across)那条街实在太危险(dangerous: hazardous, perilous, risky)了。车辆在转弯处飞驰(fly around)而去,简直就像在赛车一样。要是儿子被撞(hit: strike, run over)了怎么办?要是有小混混(teenage bullies, gang)在停车场闲逛(hang out: stroll, wander)怎么办(what if) ?
我很(so much: very much,very)享受(enjoy: like, love, appreciate)长大之后获得(have: own, obtain, get, possess)的自由(freedom: liberty),我也很想让孩子们拥有自由,但是我总是犹豫不决(hesitate),不敢这么做,因为每个角落(corner)都存在着潜在的危险(danger: hazard, risk, jeopardy, adventure, venture)。周围有太多绑架(kidnap)孩子和性骚扰(sex offender: harassment)的事情发生。我上网搜索(go online: search)了一下发现(discover: find, catch sight of),仅在我们小区就发生过41起性骚扰事件。
老实说(honestly: frankly, to be frank),我觉得我们小(young)的时候,妈妈没有担心(worry about: be concerned about, be worried about) 过此类事情的发生。
在20世纪70年代长大(grow up)的孩子确实(indeed: in fact, factually, actually)生活在一个不同的(different: distinct, diverse, dissimilar)时代( time: age, era, epoch)。我那时骑自行车从来没有带(wear: have)过头盔(helmet)。我们一天到晚在附近(neighborhood)骑车或者乱跑,回家吃顿饭然后又出去直到天黑(dark) 才回来。我们坐在卡车(truck: lorry)后面(in the back of)都不用系安全带(seatbelt)。每天上学、放学都是步行……
 
Passage Two
37. A
由“In the supermarket, it takes a while for the mind to get into a shopping mode. This is why the area immediately inside the entrance is known as the ‘decompression zone’.”可知“休闲地带”的作用是为人们尽快进入购物状态做好准备。故答案为A。
38. C
由“It turns out that selecting good fresh food is a way to start shopping, and it makes people feel less guilty about reaching for the unhealthy stuff later on.”可知,商家把果蔬放在商店门口,是为了让人们在先挑到了新鲜的果蔬后觉得很兴奋,即使后来买些不太健康的东西,负罪感也会少一点,利用了消费者的购物心理。故答案为C。
39. A
由“Path Intelligence...It found that when dwell time rose 1% sales rose 1. 3%.”可知,Path Intelligence利用手机技术来跟踪用户的位置。他们发现,顾客在店内的逗留时间每增加1%,销售额就会增长1.3%。所以,这项技术是用来测量顾客在店内逗留时间长短的。故答案为A。
40. B
由“It found that when dwell time rose 1% sales rose 1. 3%.”可知,顾客在商店逗留的时间与商店的销售额成正比。故答案为A。
41. D
由“But subconscious forces, involving emotion and memories, are clearly also at work.”可知,虽然人们告诉市场研究员,他们会做出理性的决定,但是,包括情感和记忆的潜意识同样也会影响人们的选择。可见,作者认为人们在购物时比他们想象的要感性得多。故答案为D。
42. C
文章通篇都在讲述商家怎么利用消费者的心理来布置商店格局,以吸引消费者在商店逗留更多时间,进而增加销售额。故答案为C。
 [参考译文]
你也许会觉得奇怪(wonder): 为什么所有的超市(supermarket)都是一样(same: identical)的呢?并不是因为经营(operate: manage, run) 超市的公司(company: corporation, form)缺乏(lack: want, short)想象力(imagination),而是因为他们的目标(aim: target, object)都很一致,即说服( persuade: convince)人们掏腰包。
在超市,要使顾客的大脑切换到购物模式(mode: pattern),需要花(take: spend, cost)点时间。因此,人们把超市内入口(entrance)一带叫做“休闲地带”(zone: regionarea),人们需要放慢(slowdown)速度,环顾四周(look around),即使(even if)是常客(regulars: regular visitors, regular customers)也会如此。从销售(sale: sell, market)理念上来说(in terms of ),这个区域是一种牺牲(loss: sacrifice),所以常常(tend: incline) 被用来作促销( promotion)场地。
在进入超市之后,消费者(shopper: consumer, buyer)很有可能先到达(come to: get, reach)蔬果区。很多购物者感觉先买蔬果不好,因为水果和蔬菜很容易(easily)被压坏(damage:ruin, destroy),所以应该最后买,而不是最先买。但是,为什么商家要这么安排呢?原来(turnout),先挑选( select: choose, pick out, single out)优质的(good: excellent, fine)新鲜食品是一次购物活动良好的开始(beginning: start),因为这可以减少人们稍后挑选非健康(unhealthy)食品时的负罪感(guilty)。
消费者知道日常必需品(items: goods, commodity, necessity),比如牛奶,无一例外地都放在超市的最里面,这是为了给消费者提供(provide: offer, supply)更多的消费机会(opportunity: chance, occasion),剌激( tempt: stimulate)消费。然而,超市知道消费者知道他们的算盘,所以,他们也会采用(use: adopt)其他(other)策略(trick: tactic),比如把卖得好的商品放在专区的中间位置(halfway: midway),这样人们不得不沿着货架一路找过去。这个主意(idea: thought)就是为了延长(boost: raise, enhance, extend, prolong)购物者的“逗留(dwel1: stay, remain) 时间”,即人们花在商店里的时间。
过去(traditionally),商家通过测量(measure: survey, scale)客流量来获取进入(enter: come into)店面的顾客人数。但顾客人数无法表明(say: show, indicate)人们都到哪些区域以及在这些区域停留的时间长短。但现在,一项新的技术(technology)能填补(fill:complete, finish)这个空白(gap: hole),那就是手机(mobile phone: cell phone, handset)。
英国Path Intelligence公司就利用手机技术,在朴茨茅斯的一家大型休闲购物中心——岗沃夫·奎斯来跟踪(track: follow, tail)用户的位置(position: location, place, station)。这项技术并非是在监控(monitor: inspect, watch)用户的手机通信,而是利用于机自动(automatically: voluntarily)发送(transmit: send)到通信网络(network)的信号来追踪用户的位置。他们发现(find: discover, detect),顾客在店内的逗留时间每增加1%,销售额就会增长1. 3%。
由于对消费者选择(make choices: choose, select, single out)行为的了解逐渐加深(deepen),这种技术也被越来越(increasingly)广泛地使用了。人们告诉市场研究员( researcher )他们会对该买什么做出理性(rational: sensible, reasonable)的决定,比如比价格(price),精挑细选(selection: choice),考虑(consider: think over, contemplate)是否方便(convenience)使用等。然而,包括(involve: conclude, consist)情感(emotion: feeling,sentiment)和记忆(memory)的潜意识(subconscious) 同样也会影响人们的选择。
                        
Passage Three
43. D
由“Gone are those days when patriotism towards one’s own language was a major obstacle to learning foreign languages”可知,在过去爱国主义是人们学习外语的主要障碍。故答案为D。
44. A
由“Language skills today have become as important as other business and career skills like IT, vocational or professional skills. Thus learning a foreign language today has become essential for an individual whether it is for careers, growing a business, or even to make an impression.”可知,现在,语言技能同信息技术、职业或专业技能等商业和职业技能一样重要。对于一个人来说,无论是要成就事业,还是做生意,或者仅仅是给别人留下一个好印象,学习一门外语都是很有必要的。B 、C 、D 三项在文中均未提及。故答案为A。
45. C
由“Thus learning a foreign language today has become essential for an individual whether it is for careers, growing a business, or even to make an impression.”即使是为了给别人留下个好印象,学习一门外语都是很有必要的。这里给别人留下个好印象,是为了让别人喜欢自己。故答案为C。
46. D
由“Today’s world economy has bridged the barriers of race,sex, color and religion and the world has become a smaller place. ”可知,世界变小的原因是世界经济消除了彼此的障碍。故答案为D。
47. B
由“Today’s world economy has bridged the barriers of race, sex, color and religion and the world has become a smaller place. ”可知,因特网的迅猛发展进一步增加了掌握语言技能的需要。故答案为B。
48. A
由“People in these countries immediately respect you and think you care about their culture as much as they do because in any culture language is the key identity.”在异国他乡,如果你懂得当地的语言并能和本地人用他们的母语进行交流,你会备受欢迎。这些国家的人们很快会对你肃然起敬,他们认为你和他们一样喜欢他们的文化。故答案为A。
[参考译文]
一个世纪以前,不会有很多人像现在的人们那样愿意(appreciate: like, love, enjoy, would like)学习一门外语(foreign language)。在那个时候,大多数国家(nation: country, state)都在为自由而战(struggle: fight),千方百计地(try to: manage to)将外来(alien: strange)统治者(ruler: governor)逐出(throw out: expel; kick out, evict)国门,爱国主义(patriotism)成为人们学习外语的主要(major: big, important)障碍(obstacle: drawback, barrier, hindrance)。然而,人们以自己的母语(mother or father tongue)为荣(be proud of: take pride in),并且认为仅仅(alone: only, merely)依靠本族语言就足以(suffice)生存(survive: make a living, earn ones living)的时代已经过去了。现在,语言技能(skill)与信息技术产(IT: information technology)、职业(vocational)或专业(professional)技能等其他的商业(business: trade, commerce)和职业(career: profession, occupation)技能一样重要(important: vital, essential, crucial)。因此,对于个体(individual)来说,无论是要成就事业还是做生意,或者仅仅是给别人留下一个好印象(impression),学习(learn: study, acquire)一门外语都是很有必要的(essential: necessary, indispensable)。
如今,一个人所要拥有(possess: have, own)的就是学习一门外语的驱动力(drive: stimulus, power, force),因为有很多院校(institute: academy, college)教授(teach: instruct, tutor)各种各样的外语课程(course: curriculum),如法语(French)、德语(German)、西班牙语(Spanish)和日语(Japanese)。如今的世界经济(economy)消除了(bridge the barrier)民族(race)、性别、肤色及宗教(religion)之间存在的障碍,世界变得越来越小了。现在做生意也需要(demand: need, ask, require)掌握语言技能,这样才能走出国门,发展(expand: develop, grow)壮大(grow)。现今,数以百计的(tens and hundreds of)各类世界范围的贸易都在通过促进(promote: enhance, facilitate)在他国而不是在本国的发展来向外扩展,并壮大其业务。因特网(Internet)的迅猛(tremendous)发展(growth) 进一步(further)增加了(increase: raise, enhance, add)对掌握语言技能的需要。加拿大官方(official)规定,所有的商业(commercial )机构(establishment: organization, setup, group)都必须有以本国官方语言英文和法文创建的网站(website)。
语言也可以消除(ease: remove, get rid of)民族和地域(border)的界限(barrier)。在异国(alien nation)他乡,如果你懂得当地的语言并能和本地人用他们的母语进行交流(converse: talk, communicate, chat, speak),你会备受欢迎。这些国家的人们很快会对你肃然起敬(respect: esteem),他们会认为你和他们一样喜欢(care about: like, love, be fond of, be keen on)他们的文化(culture),因为语言是任何一种文化的主要(key: major, important)标志(identity: character)。
 
Passage Four
49. C
由“Genes influence your intelligence ... Social dynamics unconsciously shape your choices ... Instantaneous perceptions set off neutral reactions... ”可知,第二段一开始所提的“these deep patterns”指第一段所提到的内容。故答案为C。
50. A
由“Exceptionally successful people are not lone pioneers who created their own success, he argues. They are the lucky beneficiaries of social arrangements. ”可知,社会安排对个人成功异常重要。故答案为A。
51. B
从第五段可以看出,格莱德威尔的书使许多决策者在采取政策时,更加关注那些能巩固关系、加强社会关系以及创造文化成就的政策。由此可以推出,格莱德威尔的书在社会上很有影响力。但影响的并不一定就是奥巴马的政策。故答案为B。
52. A
由“Control of attention is the ultimate individual power.”可知,控制注意力是最基本的个人力量。故答案为A。
53. D
由“Gladwell’s social determinism overlooks the importance of individual character and individual creativity. And it doesn’t’t fully explain the genuine greatness of humanity’s talents. ”可知,个体的伟大之处与个体个性和个体创造力二者是紧密相连的。故答案为D。
54. B
文章通篇都在对格莱德威尔的书《不凡者》的内容、观点、影响等等进行评论,发表作者自己的看法。由此可见,这篇文章应该是对《不凡者》的一篇书评。故答案为B。
[参考译文]
一天到晚(all day long)你都在受到巨大(large: huge, big, great)力量(force: power, influence)的影响(affect: have an effect on, influence, impact)。基因(gene)会影响(influence)你的智商(intelligence)、倾向冒险(take risks: adventure, venture, risk)的程度;社会(social)动态(dynamics)潜移默化地(unconsciously )决定(shape: determine, decide) 了你的选择;瞬时的(instantaneous)感知( perception)也在不知不觉中触发(set off)你头脑中的神经(neutral)反应(reaction: response, feedback)。
过去数年,科学家们在这些深层(deep)模式(pattern: mode)如何影响日常生活(daily life)方面有着一系列(a series of)激动人心的(exciting) 发现(discovery)。马尔科姆•格莱德威尔在将这些发现引起大众( public: mass)关注(attention: concern, focus)上所做的工作超过任何人。
格莱德威尔的新书《不凡者》乍看上(at first glance: at first sight)去似乎是(seem: appear)在描述(description)那些拥有非(exceptionally: extraordinarily)才华的(talented)个体。而事实上,它还是一本关于“深度模式”的书籍。作者认为异常成功的(successful)人们并不是创造(create: produce, make)出自己成功的孤独(lone: alone, lonely, solitude) 先锋(pioneer: forefather),而是社会安排(arrangement: plan)中的幸运(lucky: fortunate)受益者( beneficiary)。
格莱德威尔的一个没有引来争议的(non-controversial)主张(claim: opinion, announcement)是有一些人比另一些人拥有了更多的机会(opportunity: chance)。比尔•盖茨在信息化革命(revolution)到来之时(at the dawn of: at the arrival of, advent)就读于一所拥有自己计算机的优秀(great: good, excellent, extraordinary)私立(private)学校,那是他的幸运。
格莱德威尔的书被评论家(reviewer: critic, commenter)们看做是奥巴马时代的一个召唤(call: appeal),可能让决策者(policy maker)最终(finally: at last, eventually, ultimately)拒绝(reject: refuse, turn down, decline)采纳那些建立在(built on: based on)假设(assumption: supposition, hypothesis)人们都是冷漠(coldly)、理智(rational: sensible, reasonably)、极端利益化的(profit-maximizing)个体之上的政策(policy),而更多地关注(focus on) 那些能巩固(foster: strengthen)关系(relationship: relation)、加强社会关系( social bonds)以及创造文化成就(achievement: accomplishment, success)的政策。
然而(yet: however, nevertheless, whereas),我只是(can’t help but) 觉得(feel)格莱德威尔和那些认同(share)他观点的人们被新发现的好处冲昏了头脑(preoccupied)。他们已经看不见(lose sight of)在社会影响力和个人主动(self-initiating)影响力之间的“临界点”(point)。
多数成功人士的出发(begin with: start)点中有两个信念(belief):未来会比现在(present: current)更好,而我就能够让它实现(make it: come true, realize)。虽然他们经常是好运(fortune: luck)当头(shower),但在关键(crucial: critical)时刻(moment: occasion)依靠(rely: depend, fall back on)的还是个体(individual)意志力(will: willpower)的成功。这些人还具备有意识地集中(focus)注意力(attention )的超凡(extraordinary)能力(ability: capacity, competence)。控制(control)注意力是最基本的(ultimate: primary, basic, fundamental)个人力量(power: force)。那些能做到这一点的人们不会成为周围剌激(stimuli)的囚徒(prisoner)。他们能从整个世界的各种模式中进行选取(choose: select, single out)并延长(lengthen: prolong)它们的时间跨度(horizon: span)。
格莱德威尔的社会决定论(determinism)忽视(overlook: ignore, neglect)了个体个性及个体创造力(creativity)的重要性(importance: significance)。而且它没有完全(fully: completely, wholly, entirely)解释(explain: interpret, illustrate)出人类那些不凡者的真正(genuine: true, indeed)伟大(greatness)之处。正如古典(classical)哲学家(philosopher)
的观点,个体伟大的典范(example: model)比任何形式的教育(education: instruction)更能激发(inspire: stimulate, encourage)人们创造出成就。
 
Passage Five
55. D
由“So why is this huge increase in population taking place? It is really due to the spread of the knowledge and practice of what is becoming known as ‘Death Control’ .”可知,人口增长为什么会这么快呢?这都是由于众所周知的“死亡控制”的知识和做法的广泛传播。故答案为D。
56. D
解析:“... would have died of a variety of then incurable diseases.”从“die of”二字我们可以猜出这些疾病是无法治愈的。故答案为D。
57. A
由“This figure seems to be quite encouraging until we examine the amount of usable land we actually have. More than three-fifths of the world’s land cannot produce food.”可知,大部分的土地资源是无法利用的。故答案为A。
58. C
由“We are also doing the same with other vital resources not usually thought of as being nonrenewable such as fertile soils, groundwater and the millions of other species that share the earth with us.”可知,对于其他重要资源,比如肥沃的土壤、地下水,还有几百万和我们共享地球的其他物种,我们也是同样对待,总是不把它们看做是不可再生的资源。故答案为C。
59. C
一个地区人口的实际数量与该地区人口对于自然的影响力并不是对等的。to limit their reproduction是“控制繁殖”的意思,在这里即“控制人口增长”的意思,故答案为C。
60. D
文章通篇在讲人口爆炸与资源过度利用的问题。资源的过度利用正是人口无节制的增长的结果。作者在这两者之间更侧重后者。故答案为D。
[参考译文]
居住(inhabit: live, dwell, reside)在这个星球(planet)上的人口数量的不断增加(increasing)是一个很严重的(important: serious, vital)世界问题(problem: issue)。如果人口以目前的速度(rate: speed, pace)持续增长下去的话,有限的(limited: finite, restricted)土地和土地资源(resources)很快就会无法供养(support: feed; maintain, sustain)如此庞大的(huge: large, enormous)人口(population)。
那么,人口增长为什么会这么快呢?这都是由于(due to: owing to, because, because of)众所周知的(known as: well-known)“死亡控制”的知识(knowledge: learning, lore)和做法(practice)的广泛传播(spread: transmission)。你肯定(have no doubt)听说过(hear of)“计划生育(birth control)”这个名词(term)。“死亡控制”正好与此相反(different)。医
生和科学家成功地挽救(keep alive: save, rescue)了不久前会死于(die of: die from,pass away)一种无法治愈的(incurable )疾病(disease: illness, sickness)的病人,使他们得以存活下来,“死亡控制”认可(recognize)这种做法。通过各种各样的(a variety of: various, kinds of)技术(technological)革新(innovation: reform, renovation),包括(include: involve, consist of, contain)革新耕作(farming: cultivation)方法(method: wayapproach, skillstrategy)和控制致命的(deadly: fatal)疾病,我们找到(find: discover)了降低(reduce: decrease, cut down)死亡率(rate: ratio, proportion)的多种方法。然而,这种成功正是(very: exactly)对人类(mankind: man, human, human being)最大的(greatest: maximum)威胁(threat: menace, peril)。
如果我们核查(examine: check, test)一下可供不断增长的(ever-increasing)人口使用的土地总数额(amount),我们就会逐渐(begin to: come to)意识到这一问题的严重性。如果地球上的每个人平均分配(equal share: average share)土地的话,每一个人大约(about: or so, approximately)可占有5万平方米(square meter)。然而,只要我们核实(examine)一下真正(actually: factually, indeed)能被利用的土地量,这一数字(figure: number)似乎就不会那么令人乐观(encouraging: exciting) 了。3/5 以上的世界土地是不能生产(produce: make, manufacture, turn out, yield)粮食的。
显然(obviously: apparently, markedly),可养活我们的土地是如此之少,我们应该倍加呵护(take care of: look after, tend)它,不要使之再继续减少。但是我们没有这样做。相反(instead: contrary, conversely),我们还在继续吞噬(consume)其资源——需要花费几百万年才能生成(form: make, shape)且不可再生的(nonrenewable)化石(fossil)燃料(fuel)和其他矿藏(mineral deposits),但是,几十年(decade)来,这些资源一直在遭受人类的毁灭(destroy: damage, ruin, devastate)。对于其他重要(vital: important, indispensable, crucial)资源,比如肥沃的(fertile)土壤(soil)、地下水(groundwater),还有几百万(millions of)和我们共享(share)地球的其他物种(species),我们也是同样对待(do the same),总是不把它们看作是不可再生的资源。
人们普遍(common: universal, prevalent, pervasive)认为(belief),人口爆炸(explosion)问题主要(mainly: mostly)是贫困国家的穷人(poor: impoverished)无节制的生育(reproduction: breed)所造成(cause: result in, lead to, contribute to)的。事实并非如此。一个地区人口的实际(actual) 数量(number)与该地区人口对于自然的影响力(effect: impact, influence)并不是对等的。发展中(developing)国家的确对其环境(environment: surroundings, condition, settings, circumstance)造成了一定的影响,但是从整体上来看(as a whole),较为富裕国家的人口对地球产生的影响(impact)更为深远(greater: further)。
 
Part IV Cloze (15 points)
61. A
解析:根据语境,这里的意思是:需要投入大量的资金和精力去确定这些位置。所以A选项capital为正确答案。
62. D
解析:这里的意思是:确定位置。point指出;recognize认出;label贴标签于;identify确定,确认。故答案为D。
63. B
解析:and表并列,前后两个形容词应该对照。far遥远的;isolated与世隔绝的。故答案为B。
64. D
解析:本题的意思是:利用能源。concentrate集中;detect侦测;select选择;harness利用。故答案为D。
65. C
解析:force有种强制性,无法抗拒的意思;power侧重于动力。“自然的力量”更多的是用the forces of nature。故答案为C。
66. C
解析:if如果;while一边……一边;since因为,由于;though虽然。根据上下文,核能将大量减少污染。由于核能是由原子裂变产生的,产生的污染很少,所以这里应该用表原因的since。故答案为C。
67. B
解析:little几乎没有。核反应过程几乎不产生污染。故答案为B。
68. D
解析:根据上下文,这里将核能与传统形式的燃料进行对比。四个选项中能表示对比的只有D选项on the other hand。故答案为D。
69. B
解析:核能的产生是在原子裂变的过程中产生的。rule规则;process过程;principle原则;function功能。故答案为B。
70. D
解析:infinite无限的,无穷的。因此,我们能从核反应过程中获得无穷的能量。故答案为D。
71. B
解析:run out用尽,耗竭。世界石油、煤炭、天然气的储量正以惊人的速度消耗。故答案为B。
72. A
解析:by the end of the 21st century到21世纪末时。故答案为A。
73. C
解析:exception to对……是个例外。固定搭配。故答案为C。
74. C
解析:substantially充分地;additionally加之;theoretically从理论上来说;effectively有效地。原子的裂变和聚变,能够产生大量的核能,从理论上来讲,这个过程可以无限持续下去,直到产生的核能可以满足人类所有的需求。故答案为C。
75. A
解析:potential潜能;use使用;popularity普遍,流行;transformation变化。核能的潜力是巨大的。故答案为A。
 
Key to 2009 English Test
Paper Two
 
Part I Translation (20 points)
Section A
所谓“三手烟”是指在香烟被熄灭的数小时甚至几天后,仍残留于地毯、衣服和其他物品上的烟草烟雾等污染物。一项研究表明,很多人,尤其是烟民,并不知道“三手烟”会危害人体健康。在参与调查的1500名受访者(烟民及非烟民)中,大部分都知道“二手烟”对健康的危害。但是当被问是否同意“昨天有人抽过烟的屋子里的空气会危害人们健康”时,只有65%的非烟民和43%的烟民认同该说法。
 
Section B
If ever I were a mother, I would bring my kids camping. I would get them to experience the fun of enjoying barbecuing food over campfire. I would teach them that there was nothing dirty about sleeping on grass. I would also lead them to become aware that twinkles in the sky are not only the materials of fairy tales but also of great practical uses. For instance, they give directions to the lost travelers. It is also a form of education to have such outdoor activities.
 
 
Part II Writing (15 points)
范文
My Opinion about Blog
Blog is an on-line diary that can record and express the author’s feelings, experiences stories. With the increasing popularity of the Internet, blog also becomes more easily to be accepted. It is indeed a good means which is worth recommending in modern life.
There are several reasons to account for my standpoint. First of all, blog can help us to relieve invisible pressure accumulated inside. With fierce competition, complicated interpersonal relationship and demanding jobs, blog has undoubtedly become some people’s favorite tool to hate, love, or express themselves rationally. Meanwhile, blog is an efficient medium of communication, which doesn’t take space or money. Although someone will still put nonsense to follow up, the advantage and merits, through which we can share information without much effort, should not be denied. Last but not least, blog can enrich the Internet, thus attracting more Internet users.
To sum up, although blog is not perfect and quite a few people hold negative attitude towards it, I firmly believe blog has more advantages than its disadvantages to be focused on.
 

 

A.No problem.     B.Don’t worry.