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2011年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试真题及解析
 
出自:继教网  发布时间:2012年11月11日

同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语(英语)水平全国统一考试2011年真题

         Paper One 试卷一
             (90minutes)  
PartⅠ Dialogue Communication (10 minutes, 10 points, 1 for each)
Section A Dialogue Completion
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialogues between two speakers, each followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the answer that best suits the situation to complete the dialogue. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.

1. A: Dan gave me a free ride home, but 1 paid for the gas.
B: You know what they say,____
A. one good turn deserves another.       
B. there's no free lunch.
C. it's who you know that counts.        
D. don't bite off more than you can chew.
2. A: David said he bought a new BMW for £5, 000.
B:____Sounds pretty cheap to me!
A: Well, that's what he said.
A. Come to think of it.              B. Are you sure?
C. Do you think so?                  D. Is he crazy?
3. A: We just came back from Phoenix. And we had the best vacation in years.
B:____ I'm glad to hear it.
A. How was it?                        B. Oh, my goodness!
C. Good for you.                     D. Oh, there you go again.
4. A: I just can't stand this class any more!
B:____It’s required, and you have to sit in it in order to graduate.
A. Why, you can say that again!        
B. Well, why not just drop out of it?
C. Why, 1 couldn't agree more!        
D. Well, you might as well get used to it.
5. A: I don't know about you, but I thought that film was terrific.
B:____The action was great, and so was the music.
A. I'm with you there.                  B. Just the same.
C. More or less.                          D. I sure do.
 
Section B   Dialogue Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short conversations between a man and a woman. At the end of each conversation there is a question followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to the question from the 4 choices by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
6. Woman: I'm tired of driving all the way to work and back every day. If only cars could drive themselves.
Man: Well, some car manufacturers are working on them. 1 guess you'll soon buy one if you can afford it.
Question: What does the man imply?
A. Cars that drive themselves may be very expensive.
B. The women will be able to buy an intelligent car.
C. He is working with a car producer on intelligent cars.
D. Driving to work is really a headache.
7. Woman: I’d rather not talk about it. Just don't ask.
Man: Come on. I think you need to let off some steam.
Question: What does the man advice the woman to do?
A. To keep the secret.
B. To talk to him about the problem.
C. To reduce the workload.
D. To have a great rest.
8. Man: Julie's dress looks funny. That style went out last year.
Woman: Oh, come on, as long as it looks good on her.
Question: What does the man try to emphasize?
A. Julie's dress is not outdated.
B. Julie's dress does not suit her.
C. Julie looks fine in that dress.
D. Julie should fol1ow the fashion.
9. Woman: What kind of snacks do you prefer?
Man: Oh, I've got a sweet tooth, you know.
Question: What does the woman probably like?
A. Sandwich.                          B. Hot dogs.
C. Potato chips.                        D. Ice cream.
10. Man: Annie, how does it not even cross your mind that you might want a future with someone?
Woman: It's simple. I don't mind being married to my career.
Question: What's Annie's attitude towards her future?
A. She will stay with someone unmarried.
B. She will live a simple life.
C. She will fully focus on her job.
D. She will quit her job to get married.
 
Part II Vocabulary (20 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 for each) 
Section A
Directions:In this section, there are 10 sentences, each with one word or phrase underlined. Choose the one from the 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
11. The tendency of the human body to reject foreign matter is the main obstacle to successful organ transplantation.
A. factor                  B. constituent        
C. break                   D. barrier
12. Whenever you need Tom, he is always there whether it be an ear or a helping hand, so you can always learn on him.
A. benefit from          B. count on           
C. stand for               D. stick to
13. The news reports completely overlooked the more profound political implications of the events.
A. foresaw               B. neglected           
C. explored              D. assessed
14. Teachers and nurses who deal with children are obliged to report cases of suspected child abuse to authorities.
A. reminded               B. expected            
C. requested              D. compelled
15. Your grade will  be based in large part on the originality of your ideas.
A. popularity             B. creativity            
C. feasibility              D. flexibility
16. We suspect there is a quite deliberate attempt to sabotage the elections and undermine the electoral commission.
A. conscious             B. desperate            
C. intentional             D. clumsy
17. So strange were the circumstances of my story I can scarcely believe myself to have been a party to them.
A. hardly                 B. just                
C. almost                D. definitely
18. Smoke particles and other air pollutants are often trapped in the atmosphere, thus forming dirty fog.
A. caught                    B. constrained         
C. concealed               D. concentrated
19. Employees in chemical factories are entitled to receive extra pay for doing hazardous work.
A. poisonous            B. difficult            
C. harmful                D. dangerous
20. Curt Carlson, the wealthiest man in Minnesota, owned a hotel and travel company with sales reaching in the neighborhood of£9 billion.
A. precisely              B. merely           
C. approximately      D. substantially
 
Section B
Directions: In this section, there are 10 incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
21. Susan never took any cookery courses; she learned cooking by____     useful tips from TV cookery programs.
A. bringing up                       B. picking up         
C. putting up                         D. pulling up
22. The President         his deputy to act for him while he was abroad.
A. promoted                  B. substituted        
C. displaced                  D. authorized
23. It         without saying that consumers would be happier if prices were lower.
A. takes                      B. appears          
C. goes                       D. makes
24. The world economic recession put an         end to the steel market upturn that began in 2002.
A. irregular                   B. illegal           
C. absurd                     D. abrupt
25. I'm        about how you discovered my website, and I'm very glad if you enjoy it.
A. mysterious                B. furious          
C. curious                     D. serious
26. The Labor Party's electoral strategy, based on aan ____ with other smaller parties, has proved successful.
A. acquaintance               B. integration       
C. intimacy                      D. alliance
27. The new aircraft will be         to a test of temperatures of -65℃ and 120℃.
A. suspended                 B. suppressed       
C. subjected                   D. summoned
28. The memory I got from teaching on the side was a useful        to my ordinary income.
A. supplement                B. profit           
C. subsidy                     D. replacement
29. Chinese people are now enjoying better dental heath, as shown by the declining         of tooth decay.
A. incidence                   B. treatment         
C. consequence              D. misfortune
30. Many countries have conservation programs to prevent
certain         of fish from becoming extinct.
A. sources                    B. species          
C. numbers                   D. members
 
Part III  Reading Comprehension (45 minutes, 30 points, 1 for each)
Directions: There are 5 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by 6 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
Passage One
People are living longer than ever, but for some reason, women are living longer than men. A baby boy born in the United States in 2003 can expect to live to be about 73, a baby girl, about 79. This indeed a wide gap, and no one really knows why it exists. The greater longevity (长寿) of woman, however, has been known for centuries. It was, for example, described in the seventeenth century. However, the difference was smaller then--the gap is growing.
A number of reasons have been proposed to account for the differences. The gap is greatest in industrialized societies, so it has been suggested that woman are less susceptible to work strains that may raise the risk of heart disease and alcoholism. Sociologists also tell us that woman are encouraged to be less adventurous than men (and this may be why they are more careful drivers, involved in fewer accidents).
Even smoking has been implicated in the age discrepancy. It was once suggested that working women are more likely to smoke and as more women entered the work force, the age gap would begin to close, because smoking is related to earlier deaths. Now, however, we see more women smoking and they still tend to live longer although their lung cancer rate is climbing sharply.
One puzzling aspect of the problem is that women do not appear to be as health as men, that is, they report far more illness. But when a man reports an illness, it is more likely to be serious.
Some researchers have suggested that men may die earlier because their health is more strongly related to their emotions. For example, men tend to die sooner after losing a spouse than women do. Men even seem to be more weakened by loss of a job. (Both of these are linked with a marked decrease in the effectiveness of the immune system.) Among men, death follows retirement with an alarming promptness.
Perhaps we are searching for the answers too close to the surface of the problem. Perhaps the answers lie deeper in our biological heritage. After all, the phenomenon is not isolated to humans. Females have the edge among virtually all mammalian (哺乳动物的) species, in that they generally live longer. Furthermore, in many of these species the differences begin at the moment of conception; there are more male miscarriages (流产) . In humans, after birth, more baby boys than baby girls die.
 
31. What can we learn from the first two paragraphs?
A. Men's lifespan remains almost unchanged.
B. Researchers have found the causes of the age gap.
C. The age gap was noticed only recently.
D. The more advanced a society, the greater the age gap.
32. As is suggested in Paragraph 2, the two factors relevant to women’s longer lifespan are       .
A. disease and road accidents
B. industrialization and work strains
C. their endurance of work strains and reluctance for adventure
D. their immunity to heart disease and refusal of alcohol
33. According to Paragraph 3, which of the following statements is true?
A. The great number of male smokers contributes to the age gap.
B. The growing number of smoking women will narrow the age gap.
C. Smoking does not seem to affect women's longevity.
D. Female workers are more likely to smoke than male workers.
34. Which of the following phenomenon makes researchers puzzled?
A. Though more liable to illness, women still live longer.
B. Men's health is more closely related to their emotions.
C. Men show worse symptoms than women when they fall ill.
D. Quite a number of men die soon after their retirement.
35. The word "edge" in Paragraph 6 means"        "
A. margin                   B. side
C. quality                   D. advantage
36. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. That women are healthier than men well explains their longevity.
B. The greater longevity of women remains a mystery.
C. People are living longer as a result of industrialization.
D. W omen are less emotionally affected by difficulties in life.
 
Passage Two
Until last spring, Nia Parker and the other kids in her neighborhood commuted to school on Bus 59. But as fuel prices rose, the school district needed to find a way to cut its transportation costs. So the schools busing company redrew its route map, eliminating Nia's bus altogether. Now Nia and her neighbors travel the half mile to school via a "walking school bus"---a group of kids, supervised by an adult or two, who make the walk together.
Like the rest of us, school districts are fee1ing pinched by rising fuel costs-and finding new ways to adapt. The price of district fuel has gone up 34 percent in the past two years. For the typical American school district, bus bills total 5 percent of the budget. As administrators look to trim, busing is an inviting target, since it doesn't affect classroom instruction (or test scores). More than one third of American school administrators have eliminated bus stops or routes in order to stay within budget.
Many parents are delighted to see their kids walking to school, partly because many did so themselves: according to a 1969 survey, nearly half of school kids walked or biked to school, compared with only 16 percent in 2001. Modem parents have been unwilling to let kids walk to school for fear of traffic, crime or simple bullying, but with organized adult supervision, those concerns have diminished.
Schools and busing companies are finding other ways to save. In rural areas where busing is a must, some schools have even chosen four- day school weeks. Busing companies instruct drivers to eliminate extra stops from routes and to turn off engine while idling. They are also using computer software to determine the most fuel-efficient routes, which aren't always the shortest ones.
There could be downsides, however, to the busing cutbacks. If every formerly bused student begins walking to school, it's an environmental win-but if too many of their parents decide to drive them instead, the overall carbon footprint can grow. Replacing buses with many more parent- driven cars can also increase safe risks: A 2002 report concluded students are 13 times safer on a school bus than in a passenger car, since buses have fewer accidents and withstand them better due to their size. And some students complain about the long morning hikes, particularly when the route contains a really big hill.
37. The "walking school bus"      .
A. aims to keep children fit              
B. does not consume fuel
C. seldom causes traffic jams             
D. is popular with school kids
38. In America the responsibility for busing kids to school lies with        .
A. school districts                     B. individual schools
C. teacher                                 D. parents
39. As regards walking to school, modem parents seem much concerned with the      .
A. time spent on the way                      B. changes in the route
C. safety of their children                     D. kids' physical strength
40. To save money, some schools choose to       .
A. shorten the school week              B. take the shortest routes
C. give drivers better training            D. use fuel-efficient buses
41. Busing cutbacks may eventually lead to       .
A. fierce competition among bus companies
B. more students taking public transportation
C. a decrease in the safety of school buses
D. an increase in carbon dioxide emissions
42. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards busing cutbacks?
A. Favorable.                   B. Critical.      
C. Indifferent.                  D. Objective.
 
Passage Three
If you haven’t heard or seen anything about Road Rage in the last few months, you’ve probably been avoiding the media. There have been countless stories about the new and scary phenomenon, considered a type of aggressive driving. You have most likely encountered aggressive driving Road Rage recently if you drive at all.
While drunk driving remains a critical problem, the facts about aggressive driving are surely as disturbing. For instance, according to the National Highway Transportation Safety Association, 41,907 people died on the highway last year. Of those fatalities, the agency estimates that about two-thirds were caused at least in part by aggressive driving behavior.
Why is the phenomenon occurring more than over now and why is it something that seemed almost nonexistent a few short years ago? Experts have several theories, and all are probably partially correct. One suggestion is sheer overcrowding. In the last decade, the number of cars on the road has increased be more than 11 and the number of miles driven has increased by 35 percent. However, the number of new road miles has only increased by 1 percent. That means more cars in the same amount of space; and the problem is magnified urban areas. Also, people have less time and more things to do. with people working and trying to fit extra chores (琐事) and activities into the day, stress levels have never been higher. Stress creates anxiety, which leads to short temper. These factors, when combined in certain situations, can spell Road Rage.
You may think you are the last person who would drive aggressively, but you might be surprised. For instance, have you ever yelled out loud at a slower driver, sounded the horn long and hard at another car, or sped up to keep another driver from passing? And hard at another car or sped up to keep another driver from passing? If you recognize yourself in any of these situations, watch out!
Whether you are getting angry at other drivers, or another driver is visibly upset with you, there are things you can do to avoid any major confrontation. If you are susceptible to Road Rage, the key is to discharge your emotion in a healthy way. If you are the target of another driver’s rage, do everything possible to get away from the other driver safely, including avoiding eye contact and getting out of their way.
43. The first sentence in Paragraph 1 implies that ________.
A. Road Rage has received much media coverage in the last few months
B. people not interested in the media know little about recent happenings
C. one may be raged by media reports and wants to avoid them
D. the media coined the term "Road Rage" only a few months ago
44. According to the National Highway Transportation Safety Association, last year________.
A. more people were killed by aggressive driving than by drunk driving
B. drunk driving remained the No.1 killer on the highways
C. two thirds of drivers were killed by aggressive driving
D. 41,907 people fell victim to aggressive driving
45. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of aggressive driving?
A. Increasing number of cars.
C. Rush hour traffic.
B. Drivers' stress and anxiety.
D. Overcrowded roads.
46. The word “spell" in Paragraph 3 means “_______.
A. cause
C. describe
B. speak
D. spare
47. Which of the following characterizes aggressive driving?
A. Talking while driving.                      B. Driving fast.
C. Sounding the horn when passing.    D. Yelling at another driver.
48. The last paragraph is intended to________.
A. inform people how aggressive drivers could be
B. people how to cope with Road Rage
C. tell people how to control themselves when angry
D. warn people against eye contact with another driver
 
Passage Four
Many are aware of the tremendous waste of energy in our environment, but fail to take advantage of straightforward opportunities to conserve that energy. For example, everyone knows that lights should be switched off when no one is in an office. Similarly, when employees are not using a meeting room, there is no need to regulate temperature.
Fortunately, one need not rely on human intervention to conserve energy. With the help of smart sensing and network technology, energy conservation processes such as turning off lights and adjusting temperature can be readily automated. Ultimately, this technology will enable consumers and plant managers to better identify wasteful energy use and institute procedures that lead to smarter and more efficient homes, buildings and industrial plants.
Until now, wires and cables for power and connectivity have limited the widespread adoption of sensor (传感器) networks by making them difficult and expensive to install and maintain. Battery-powered wireless networks can simplify installation and reduce cost. But their high power consumption and the corresponding need for regular battery replacement has made wireless networks difficult and costly to maintain. Nobody wants to replace hundreds or thousands of window sensor batteries in a large building on a regular basis.
The promise of wireless sensor networks can only be fully realized when the wiring for both the data communication and the power supply is eliminated. Doing so requires a true battery-free wireless solution, one that can utilize energy harvested directly from the environment. To facilitate the widespread deployment of wireless sensor networks, Green Peak has developed an ultra-low-power communication technology that can utilize environmental energy sources such as light, motion and vibration. This technology, employing on-board power management circuits and computer software to monitor energy harvesters and make the best use of harvested energy enables sensors to operate reliably in a battery-free environment.
Wireless sensor networks deployed in our offices and homes will have an enormous impact on our daily lives, helping to build a, smarter world in which energy is recycled and fully utilized. These wireless platforms, equipped with advanced sensing capability, will enable us to better control our lives, homes and environments, creating a truly connected world that enables people worldwide to live in a more comfortable, safer, and cleaner environment.
49. By "human intervention"(Paragraph 2), the author refers to________.
A. the reduction of great energy waste in the environment
B. The grasping of straightforward opportunities available
C. the adoption of smart sensing and network technology
D. acts like turning off lights when no one is in the room
50. Batteries are not an ideal energy source for sensor networks because they________.
A. contain metals that pollute the environment
B. have to be replaced from time to time
C. require automatic recharging
D. are difficult and costly to maintain
51. Battery-free wireless sensor networks are made possible by the fact that________.
A. the cost of using them has been drastically reduced
B. there is energy in the environment to be utilized
C. modem data communication consume little energy
D. their maintenance has been greedy simplified
52. According to the passage, Green Peak________.
A. Promotes the application of wireless sensor network
B. Is the first company to install wireless sensor network
C. Supplies batteries operating on harvested energy
D. Benefits handsomely from communication technology
53. The focus of Paragraph 4 is on the________.
A. Replacement of batteries in harvesters
B. Monitoring of energy harvested from the environment
C. Impact of sensor networks on power supply
D. Elimination of batteries in sensor networks
54. Wireless sensor networks promise to________.
A. Bring businesses high profits
B. Further develop the sensing technology
C. Improve the daily lives of people worldwide
D. Turn motion into a major source of energy
 
Passage Five
In the early 20th century, a house named Clever Hans was believed capable of counting and other impressive mental task. After years of great performance, psychologists discovered that though Hans was certainly clever, he was not clever in the way everyone expected. The horse was cleverly picking up on tiny, unintentional bodily and facial signals given out not only by his trainer, but also by the audience. Aware of the "Clever Hans" effect, Lisa Lit at the University of Caledonia and her colleagues wondered whether the beliefs of professional dog handlers might similarly affect the outcomes of searches for drug and explosives. Remarkably, Dr. Lit found, they do.
Dr. Lit asked 18 professional dog handlers and their dogs to complete brief searches. Before the searches, the handlers were informed at some of search areas might contain up to three target scents, and also that in two cases those scents would be marked by pieces of red paper. What the handlers were not told was that none of the search areas contained the scents of either drugs or explosives. Any "detections" made by the teams thus had to be false.
The findings reveal that of 144 searches, only 21 were clean (no alerts). All the others raised one alert or more. In total, the teams raised 225 alerts. Whiles the sheer number of false alerts struck Dr. Lit as fascinating; it was where they took place that was of greatest interest.
When handlers could see a red piece of paper, allegedly marking a location of interest, they were much more likely to say that their dogs signaled an alert. The human handlers were not only distracted on almost every occasion by the stimulus aimed at them, but also transmitted that distracted to their animals-who responded accordingly. To mix metaphors, the dogs were crying "wolf'” at the unconscious signal of their handlers.
How much that matters in the real world is unclear. But it might. If a handler, for example, unconsciously "profiled" people being sniffed by a drug or explosive-detecting dog at an airportfalse positives could abound. That is not only bad for innocent travelers, but might distract the team from catching the guilty.
 
55. What did psychologists find out about Clever Hans?
A. He was as clever as people claimed.
B. He was really good at counting.
C. He merely responded to human signals.
D. He could understand human language.
56. Lisa Lit and her colleagues ________.
A. questioned the “Clever Hans” effect
B. discovered the “Clever Hans” effect
C. rejected the “Clever Hans” effect
D. confirmed the “Clever Hans” effect
57. The dog handlers learned before the searches that _______.
A. each search area contained three target scents
B. there was actually no target scent in the search area
C. their dogs were expected to find the scents of red paper
D. some target scents may be labeled with a special mark
58. What was most significant about the experiment, according to Dr.Lit?
A. The regularity of the false alerts.
B. The location of the false alerts.
C. The number of the false alerts.
D. The timing of the false alerts.
59. It can be concluded from the experiment that ________.
A. dogs may act in response to their handlers' bodily signals
B. dog handlers are more likely to be distracted than their dogs
C. the cooperation between dogs and their handlers is key to success
D. well-trained dogs can better understand their handlers' signals
60. The author thinks that Dr.Lit's findings ________.
A. may not be useful in real situations
B. should raise our concern in real life
C. should be backed up by further evidence
D. will be widely applied in the near future
 
Part IV Cloze   (15 minutes, 15 points, 1 for each)
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blank there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
 
Zoos have become an important site for the preservation and protection of wildlife resources, __61__ those species that are endangered. __62__, many zoos displayed live animals for public entertainment. Presently some zoos have become scientific and educational __63__ that have contributed to the understanding and conservation of wild animal populations. __64__ the challenges facing modern zoos are the cost of upgrading old facilities, the struggle to obtain __65__ operating funds, and the need to attract more visitors to new and entertaining exhibits.
Many __66__ zoos in American cities have undergone renovation (翻新) during the last decades of the twentieth century. Among the recent trends in zoo __67__ is the construction of new enclosures that resemble natural habitats (栖息地). The replacement of traditional steel bars and concrete floors __68__ appropriately designed surroundings improves visitor appreciation of the animals. Such renovations may __69__ stress on animals and allow them to interact with one another more naturally.
Several major zoos conduct captive propagation programs. A captive propagation program includes the breeding of __70__ zoo or wild animals to obtain offspring, usually for release to __71__ or for transfer to other zoos. Captive breeding is one method of __72__ some species from extinction.
Zoos have expanded and improved public education programs also, with education departments that develop programs __ 73__ zoo exhibits. Public activities include in-school programs, zoo tours, special events, and websites. The Zoological Society of New York, for example, conducted a major project with a Western African government to monitor an elephant herd __74__ it moved throughout its range.
The importance of zoos will increase as natural habitats are diminishing. Through their efforts __75__ conservation, education, and environmental advocacy, zoos will continue to play a critical role in wildlife preservation throughout the world.

61.A. superficially              
B .especially
C. importantly
D. supposedly
62. A. By that time            
B. By the time
C. At one time
D. At that time
63. A. institutions             
B. associations
C. foundations
D. corporations
64. A. Along                       
B. Toward
C. Among
D. Through
65. A. limited                  
B. professional
C. sufficient
D. excessive
66. A. newer                          
B. older
C. former
D. later
67. A. management      
B. improvement
C. achievement
D. assessment
68. A. under                              
B. for
C. into
D. with
69. A. reduce                        
B. cause
C. increase
D. avoid
70. A. selected                    
B. sustained
C. promising
D. surviving
71. A. natural                       
B. the natural
C. wild
D. the wild
72. A. restraining                   
B. saving
C. sheltering
D. exempting
73. A. attributed to             
B. opposed to
C. referred to
D. related to
74. A. as                                  
B. as if
C. so
D. so that
75. A. in search of             
B. in honor of
C. in support of
D. in charge of

 
Paper Two
(60 minutes)
Part I Translation (30 minutes, 20 points, 10 for each section)
Section A
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
 
Over the years, we tend to think that nuclear technologies and the necessary know-how to ensure nuclear safety have been developed to a level that possibilities for any major nuclear accidents are almost non-existent and if it does happen, it will be controlled in the capable hands of nuclear engineers. However, reality has proved again that you just can’t be too careful to handle nuclear energy. We don’t know for sure yet what will be left behind Japan’s nuclear crisis, but it will be certain that it is time to re-examine our nuclear practices and many more efforts need to be made to ensure nuclear safety in the future.
 
Section B
Directions:Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
 
中国有着5000年的文化传统,历经劫波而生生不息,我们一定要充分发扬祖国的文化传统。同时我们也懂得要学习和借鉴世界先进的文明。只有这样,才能使祖国的文化得到进一步的发展,也就是我常说的,只有开放包容,才能使祖国强大。
 
Part II Writing (30 minutes, 15 pints)
Directions: In this part, you are to write a composition of no less than 150 words within 30minutes under the title of “How to Handle Stress”. The clues given below are for your reference only, NOT the outline you should follow. Please remember to write your composition clearly on the COMPOSITION SHEET.
1.     Common sources of stress
2.     Healthy ways to reduce stress
3.     How you have overcome stressful situations.
 
 
同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语(英语)水平全国统一考试2011年英语真题答案及解析
          Key to 2011 English Test
              Paper One
Part I Dialogue Communication (10 points)
Section A
Part 1 Dialogue Communication (15 minutes, 10 point,1 for each)
1. B
解析:A: 丹载我回家,但是我付了汽油钱。A "善有善报。" B "天下没有免费的午餐。"C "你知道谁靠得住。"D "不要自不量力。"根据B 回答的前半句"你知道他们说什么来着",可知是对A 的行为的一种总结,意思就是天下没有白占的便宜。故答案选B
2. B
解析:A: 大卫说他花了5000 英镑买了一辆新的宝马车。A "好好考虑一下吧。"B "你确定吗? "C "你也是这么认为的吗? "D "他疯了吗? "。根据B 回答的后半句"这听起来很便宜啊!",可知这里应该是表示吃惊疑惑。故答案选B
3. C
解析:A: 我们刚从凤凰城回来,这真是近年来最愉快的假期啊!根据B 的后半句"真替你高兴!",可知此处应该是肯定A 的意见。A "它怎么样? " B "啊,我的天啊!" C"好得很,真替你高兴啊!" D "哦,你又来了!"。故答案选C
4. D
解析:A: 我不想再上课了!根据B 回答的后一句"这是要求的课程,为了能毕业就要去上课啊! ",可知前半句是劝慰。A "为什么,你说得太对了!" B "嗯,为什么不辍学呢? " C"为什么,我完全同意!" D "嗯,你不妨去适应它。" 故答案选D
5. A
解析:A: 我不知道你是怎么想的,但是我觉得那电影好极了。根据B 回答的后一句"电影的动作非常好,音乐也很好!"可知B 对这部电影的态度也是非常肯定的。A "我完全同意你的看法。" B "还是那样儿。" C "差不多。"D "当然。" 故答案选A
 
Section B
6. A
解析:女士:从家去工作来来回回太累了,要是有智能车就好了。男士:嗯,一些汽车厂家已经在研究了。如果你能付得起钱的话,很快就能买到一辆了。从这位男士的话语中能看出来,智能汽车会很贵。故答案选A
7. C
解析:女士:我不想多谈它了,不要再问了。男士:别这样,我想你应该放松一下了。A"保守秘密。"B "和他谈谈这个问题。"C "减轻工作量。"D "好好休息一下。" 故答案选C
8. C
解析:女士:朱莉的裙子看起来很好笑,那个款式去年就过时了。男士:噢,别这样,我认为她穿着很好。男士的意思是,即使裙子过时了,但朱莉穿起来仍很好看。故答案选C
9. D
解析:男士:你喜欢什么样的甜点?女士:我喜欢吃甜食,你知道的!答案中除去D "冰激凌"外,其余三者都不是甜食。故答案选D
10. C
解析:男士:安妮,你就从没想过未来和某个人一起生活吗?女士:这很简单,我并不介意嫁给我的工作。暗示她会将全部精力放在工作上,不考虑结婚的事情。故答案选C
 
Part II Vocabulary (10 points)
Section A
11. D
【解析】obstacle 阻碍,障碍。factor 因素,要素。constituent 成分,组成要素。break破损,破裂barrier 障碍,阻碍。故答案选D
【句意】对外来器官的排斥现象是器官移植最大的障碍。
12. B
【解析】lean on 依赖。benefit from 得益于。count on 依靠,依赖。stand for 代表,象征。stick to 忠于,信守。故答案选B
【句意】当你需要时,无论是提供倾听的耳朵或是帮助的手,汤姆总在那里,让你可以随时依靠他。
13. B
【解析】overlook 忽略,忽视。foresaw 预见。 neglect 忽视,忽略。explore 探究,探索。assess 评估,评定。故答案选B
【句意】新闻报道完全忽视了这一事件的深层政治含义。
14. C
【解析】oblige 要求。remind 提醒,使想起。expect 期望,预期。request 要求。compel强迫,迫使。故答案选C
【句意】和孩子们接触的老师和护士被要求,一旦发现虐童现象就要向当局报告。
15. B
【解析】originality 创造力,独创性。popularity 流行,人气。creativity 创造力。feasibility可行性。flexibility 适应性,灵活性。故答案选B 。【句意】你的成绩在很大程度上是根据你那有创意的想法来定的。
16. C
【解析】deliberate 蓄意,故意。conscious 意识到的。desperate 绝望的。intentional策划的,故意的。clumsy 愚笨的。故答案选C
【句意】我想有人蓄意策划妨碍选举并且伤害选举委员会。
17. A
【解析】scarcely 几乎不,几乎没有。hardly 几乎不。just 仅仅,只有。almost 差不多,几乎。definitely 清楚的,明确的。故答案选A
【句意】我故事里的情形非常奇怪,我几乎无法相信我参加了他们的聚会。
18. A
【解析】trapped 使陷入,使困住。caught 被抓住,被困住。constrained 被的。concealed隐蔽,隐藏。concentrated 集中。故答案选A
【句意】烟雾微粒和其它空气污染物往往被困在大气中,这样就形成了“脏雾”。
19. D
【解析】hazardous 有危险的。 poisonous 有毒的,恶毒的。difficult 困难的。harmful有害的。dangerous 危险的。故答案选D
【句意】化工厂的员工做危险工作的时候可以得到额外的报酬。
20. C
【解析】In the neighborhood of 将近,接近。precisely 精确地,准确地。merely 只是,仅仅。approximately 大概,大约,接近。substantially 大量地。故答案选C
【句意】科特·卡尔森,明起苏达州的首富,拥有一间饭店和一家旅游公司,它们价值达到了90 亿。
 
Section B
21. B
【解析】bring up 教育,培养。pick up 学到。put up 建造,支起。pull up 向上拉,拔。故答案选B
【句意】苏珊从没上过烹饪课,她都是通过电视烹饪节目上介绍的有用的小技巧来学习厨艺的。
22. D
【解析】 promote 晋升。substitute 代替,替补。displace 取代,替代。authorize 授权,全权委托。根据题意选答案D
【句意】当他在国外的时候,总统授权他的代理人来行使他的职权。
23. C
【解析】go without saying 固定搭配"不言而喻"。故答案选C
【句意】不言而喻,如果价格下降的话,消费者会更开心。
24. D
【解析】irregular 不规则的,无规律的。illegal 非法的。absurd 不合理的,荒谬的。:abrupt 突然地,意外的。故答案选D
【句意】随着2002 年开始的钢材市场的回暖,世界经济的衰退结束了。
25. C
【解析】mysterious 神秘的,不可思议的。furious 狂怒的。curious 好奇的。serious严肃的。故答案选C
【句意】我很好奇你是怎样发现我的网站的。但是如果你喜欢它。我会很高兴。
26. D
【解析】 acquaintance 相识,了解。integration 整合,完整。intimacy 亲密,亲近。alliance 结盟,联盟。故答案选D
【句意】工党联合其它小党派的选举政策证明是很成功的。
27. C
【解析】suspend 使搁置。suppress 废止,封锁。subject 使遭受,使接受试验。summon召唤。故答案选C
【句意】新飞机要接受一个零下65 摄氏度到120 摄氏度的温度测试。
28. A
【解析】on the side 兼职。supplement 补充。profit 利润,收益。subsidy 津贴,补贴。replacement 代替,取代。故答案选A
【句意】我兼职带课赚的钱是我平常收入的一个有利补充。
29. A
【解析】 incident 事件,事故。treatment 治疗。consequence 结果,后果。misfortune不幸,厄运。根据题干意思应该是减少蛙牙的事件,故答案选A
【句意】中国人民正在享受更好的牙齿健康,如图所示,蛙牙的发生率正在减少。
30. B
【解析】source 来源,资源。species 种类。number 数量。member 成员。根据句意应该是鱼的种类,故答案选B
【句意】许多国家都有保护项目来防止鱼类绝种。
 
Part III Reading Comprehension (30 points)
Passage One
31. D
由第一段的最后两句"It was, for example, described in the seventeenth century. However, the different was smaller then ---the gap is growing以及第二段中"The gap is greatest in industrialized societies. "可知,越先进的社会,差距就越大。故答案选D
32. C
由第二段中“the gap is greatest in industrialized societies, ... to be less adventurous than men…" 可知,与女性长寿有关的两个因素是她们对工作压力的承受能力和不愿意冒险。故答案选C
33. C
"Now, however, we see more women smoking and they still tend to live longer although their lung cancer rate is climbing sharply."(然而,现在我们看到更多的女性吸烟,但是她们仍然活的更长久,即使她们得肺癌的机率在急剧上升。)可知,吸烟似乎对女性的长寿没什么影响。故答案选C
34. A
由第四段中"One puzzling aspect of the problem is that women do not appear to be as healthy as men. That is, they report far more illness." 可知,令研究者百思不得其解的是即使女性得病率高,但她们仍然活的更长久。故答案选A
35. D
解析:margin 利润,余裕。side 方面。quality 质量。advantage 优势,利益。通篇都在谈论女性比男性在寿命方面更有优势,由此优势类推到几乎所有的哺乳动物中,雌性都活得更长些。故答案选D
36. B
解析:从全文来看人们对女性为什么长寿进行了许多推测,但是这仍没有确切结果,女性为什么长寿仍是一个谜。故答案选B
 
[参考译文]
人们比以往任何时候活得都长,但是由于一些原因,女性比男性活的更长。2003 年在美国出生的男婴,预期( expect: look forward to) 可能活到73 岁,但是女婴大约会活到79 岁。这的确是一个很大的差距)(gap: separation, blank) 。但是没有人知道它为什么会存在(exist: occur, live) 。女性的长寿(longevity: age, macrobiosis) 几个世纪以来都被人们熟知。例如,十七世纪它就己经被描述(describe: represent, trace, figure, depict) 过了。然而,差异(difference: diversity, conflict, disparity, deviations) 比差距的增长( grow: increase) 要小。
许多原因都被提出( propose: schedule, design, map, think, purpose) 来解释(account for: explain) 这个差异。在工业社会(industrialized societies) ,差距更大了,所以有人提出(suggest: vote, advise) 女性不易受到工作压力(strain, tension, burden, weight) 影响( susceptible: impressionable) ,而这些压力会提高患心脏病(heart disease) 和酗酒(alcoholism: bibulosity )的危险(risk: venture) 。杜会学家(Sociologist) 也说女性比男性更少的被鼓励(encourage: stimulate) 去从事具有冒险性的(adventurous: bold)工作,这可能就是为什么女性开车更小心,更少被卷入(become involved in) 车祸中的原因。
吸烟也被牵扯到(implicate: involve) 年龄差距(discrepancy: conflict, unconformity)上来了。有人曾经提出随着更多的女性进入职场(work force) ,职业女性更有可能吸烟,这使年龄差距开始接近,因为吸烟与早逝有关(relate to: deal withget involved in) 。然而,现在我们看到更多的女性吸烟,但是她们仍然倾向于(tend to: trend) 活得更长久,即使她们得肺癌的机率在急剧(sharply: rapidly) 上升(climbing: rising)
百思不得其解(puzzling: confusing) 的是女性看来似乎(appear to: seem) 不像男性一样健康。更确切地说,她们得病的机率更大。但是,男人一旦得病,就会很严重。一些研究者提出男人的过早死亡与他们的情绪(emotion: mood) 有关。例如,在失去配偶(spouse: mate ship) 后,男人比女人更早的死亡。男人在失去工作后也更为脆弱(weak: fragile)这些都与免疫系统(immune system) 的下降有关联。在男性中,退休后死亡率很令人担忧(an alarming promptness)
也许我们追寻的答案与问题的表象(surface: exterior, outside) 很接近。
也许答案更在于我们的生物遗传上(biological heritage) 。毕竟(after all) ,这一现象并不孤立存在于( isolate: seclude) 人类中。几乎( virtually: almost) 所有哺乳动物(mammalian) 中的雌性(female) 都有这个优势(edge: advantage) ,这使它们通常活得更久。因此(furthermore: moreover, besides) 许多物种(species: category, variety) 的差异开始于胚胎( conception) 时期,有更多的雄性动物流产(miscarriage)。人类在出生之后,男婴夭折的数目比女婴要大。
 
Passage Two
37. B
根据第一段内容可知"步行校车"活动主要是为了节省汽油而发起的,故答案选B
38. A
由第二段中"For the typical American school district, bus bills total 5 percent of the budget." 可知,学校在校车使用上每年都要有一定额度的预算,结合上下文可推断是校区的责任。故答案选A
39. C
由第三段中"Modem parents have been unwilling to let kids walk to school for fear of ...,  those concerns have diminished. "可知,现在的家长不愿他们的孩子走路上学,显然是担心孩子们的安全问题。故答案选C
40. A
由第四段中"In rural areas where busing is a must, some schools have chosen four-day school weeks." 可知,在那些必须要有校车的农村地区,一些学校甚至选择缩短上学周期。故答案选A
41. D
由最后一段中"but if too many of their parents decide to drive them instead,由eoveral1carbon footprint can grow." 可知,削减公交车导致有很多家长开车送孩子上学,整体碳排放量就会上升。故答案选D
42. B
从最后一段可以看出作者并不赞同消减公车,并在文中列举了一系列后果,具有批判性。故答案选B
 
[参考译文]
直到去年春天,尼娅·帕克还与邻居的孩子们乘坐59 路车去学校。但是随着油价(fuel price: oil price) 的上升,校区需要找到降低交通(transportation: traffic) 费用的方法,所以学校的公车公司重新描绘(redraw: repaint) 了他们的路线(route: path) 圈,撤销(eliminate: avoid, exclude) 尼娅乘坐的公车。现在尼娅和她的邻居们要走半英里的路去学校,通过"步行校车",即一群孩子由一两个大人监督(supervise: manage) 一起步行上学。
像我们一样,校区也因油价的上涨而感到经济拮据(pinch: harry) ,并且在寻找新的方法来适应(adapt: adjust, accommodate to) 这种状况。过去两年里,柴油价格上涨了34% 。对于典型的美国校区,校车费用总共占预算(budget: spend) 5% 。校车成了管理者削减开支(trim: cut down to) 的最大目标,因为这不会影响教学(或者说是考试成绩)。超过二分之一的学校管理者为了(in order to) 不超出预算,削减了校车站点和路线。
许多家长很高兴(delight: glad, pleasure) 看到他们的孩子走路上学,部分原因是他们中的许多人也曾这样做过。根据1969 年的一项调查,接近一半的学生走路或骑车上学,2001年这个数字仅为16%。现在的家长不愿他们的孩子走路上学是因为对交通、犯罪(crime: guilt)或者恐吓(bully: daunt) 的担忧(fear: worry) ,但是组织成年人来监督就消除了(diminish: reduce, decrease) 这些担心。
学校和校车公司也在找其它的办法来节约开支。在那些必须要有校车的农村(rural: country, sylvan) 地区,一些学校甚至一周只上四天学。汽车公司指示(instruct: require) 司机从路线图上减少额外(extra: additional) 的站点,并且在空载时关闭引擎(engine)。他们也用电脑软件来决定最省油(fuel-efficient )的路线但并不总是最短的路线。
但是对于公车的削减(cutback: reduction) 也有不好的一面(downside: disadvantage) 。如果之前乘坐校车的学生都能够走路上学,这就是环境的胜利,但是太多的家长决定开车送他们上学,总体(overall: entire) 碳排放量就会上升。代替校车,更多的家长驾车送孩子上学,也会增加交通危险,一份2002 年的报告显示学生乘坐校车比客车安全13倍,这是因为校车的大小正合适于乘坐的学生,减少了交通事故。有学生不愿意(complain: whine about) 早晨过长的步行,尤其是当路线里包含有大段山路的时候就更不愿意步行。
 
Passage Three
43. A
"If you haven't heard or seen anything about Road Rage in the last few months, you’ve probably been avoiding the media. "可知,Road Rage 在过去的时间里得到了很多关注。故答案选A
44. A
由第二段中"Of those fatalities, the agency estimates that about two-third were caused at least in part by aggressive driving behaviors." 可知,更多的人死于攻击性驾驶,而非醉酒驾驶。故答案选A
45. C
在第三段中阐述了导致这一现象的几个原因,A B, D 三个选项都可找到对应原文,只有C 没有提及。故答案选C
46. A
"Those factors, when combined in certain situations, can "spell" Road Rage."(当这些因素在特定情况下综合到一起的时候,就会引起路怒症的行为。)可知,此处" spell"译为"引起,造成"更合适。故答案选A
47. D
"For instance, have you ever yelled out loud at a slower driver, sounded the horn long and hard at another car, or sped up to keep another driver from passing?"(例如你可曾在这些情况下大吼过?遇到开慢车的司机,听到长时间的鸣笛或者遇到另一辆车通过加速行驶来妨碍其它车辆超车过去。)可知,只有选项D 提到了。故答案选D
48. B
"Whether you are getting angry at other drivers, or another driver is visibly upset with you, there are things you can do to avoid any major confrontation. "可知,最后一段主要是在告诉人们如何处理"路怒症"的行为。故答案选B
 
[参考译文]
如果在过去的几个月里,你没有听说或者看见任何有关"路怒症" (Road Rage) 的事情,那么你有可能太闭目塞听了。有无数的(countless: innumerable) 故事是关于这个新的并且可怕的(scary: tremulous) 现象的,这种行为被认为是攻击性(aggressive: invasive) 驾驶。最近在驾驶中你完全有可能遇到攻击性驾驶戚者"路怒症"的行为。
虽然酒后驾驶仍然是一个很关键的(critical: decisive) 问题,但攻击性驾驶的事实也肯定令人不安。例如(for instance: for example) ,根据国家高速公路安全委员会的调查,去年有41907 人在高速公路(highway) 上死亡。这些死亡事故中,估计(estimate: evaluate, guess at)三分之二的事故某种程度上(in part)是源于攻击性驾驶行为的。
为什么这种现象发生(occur: happen, take place) 得更加频繁?为什么几年前这一现象还不存在?专家们提出了一些理论,但是每种都好像部分( partially )正确而己。有些人说原因就是纯粹的(sheer: strict, absolute) 人满为患(overcrowding: cramming) 。过去十年,路上的汽车数量增加了11% ,行车公里数增加了35%。但是,新修道路的里数只增加了1% 。那就意味着更多的车挤在同样的空间中,而且市区(in urban areas) 里这个问题更为突出(magnify: enlarge) 。同时,人们时间更加紧张,并且要做更多的事情。人们一天中一边工作一边努力处理额外的琐事和活动,压力还从没有如此之高过。压力导致紧张感(anxiety: solicitude, aspiration) ,人更容易脾气暴躁(short temper) 。这些情况综合到一起,就会引起(spell: cause) 路霸的行为。
你可能认为你不是开车冒冒失失(aggressive: invasive) 的人,但是你可能会被吓到。例如,你可曾在这些情况下大吼过(yelled out loud) ?遇到开车慢的司机,会长时间地鸣笛或者车辆通过加速行驶来妨碍其他车辆超车过去。如果任何一种情况在你身上发生了,就要小心了。
无论是你和其他司机生气,还是别人因你而烦躁不安,一定有些事情是你能做的来避免大的对抗(confrontation: war, antagonism)驾驶。如果你很容易受到"路怒症"的影响,那关键点就是要以健康的方式来发泄(discharge: get rid of)你的情绪。如果你成为了别人发泄的目标,要尽一切努力安全地避开其他司机,这其中包括避免眼神接触和从他们的车道出去。
 
Passage Four
49. D
由第二段中"With the help of smart sensing and network technology, energy conservation processes such as turning off lights and adjusting temperature can be readily automated. ".可知,在智能传感和网络技术的帮助下,像关灯和温度调节这些节能方式都能自动进行。故答案选D
50. B
"Nobody wants to replace hundreds or thousands of window sensor batteries in a large building on a regular basis." 可知,电池不能成为传感器网络最合适能源的原因是电池必须要时刻更换。故答案选B
51. B
由第四段中"Doing so requires a true battery-free wireless solution, one that can utilize energy harvested directly from the environment. "可知,直接应用环境中已经存在的能源是其解决方法。故答案选B
52. A
"To facilitate the widespread deployment of wireless sensor networks, Green Peakhas developed an ultra-low-power communication technology that can utilize environmental energy sources such as light, motion and vibration." 可知,格林·皮克推广了无线传感器网络的应用。故答案选A
53. C
从第四段的内容可以看出,在讨论传感器网络的能源供应问题。故答案选C
54. C
由最后一段末尾处"These wireless platforms, equipped with advanced sensing capability, will enable us to better control our lives, homes and environment, creating a truly connected world that enables people worldwide to live in a more comfortable, safer, and cleaner environment. "可知,无线传感器网络提高了全世界人民的日常生活水平。故答案选C
 
[参考译文]
许多人己经意识到了环境中巨大的(tremendous: huge, enormous) 能源浪费,但是却不能利用简单的(straightforward: direct1y) 机会去节能(conserve: save)。例如,大家都知道,办公室在没人状态时要关灯(switch off: turn off, cut off)。同样地,没人在会议室时,就不要再开空调了。
幸运的是,这些并不需要人类干预(intervention: prevention, violation) 来节约能源。在智能传感和网络技术的帮助下,像关灯和温度调节这些节能程序(process: system, method)都能自动进行。最终,这项技术能够使消费者和工厂(plant: factory) 管理者更好地辨别(identity: confirm, recognize) 浪费能源行为,并且制定(institute: establish) 程序使家里、建筑物、工厂有效地运用能源。
直到现在,连接电线和电缆限制了传感器网络的广泛应用,这使得传感器网络的安装(install: set up) 和维修(maintain: keep in repair) 更加困难和昂贵。由电池供应的无线网络可以简化(simplify: predigest, deformalize) 安装设置和减少花销。但是高消耗(consumption: expense) 和相应的(corresponding: accompanying) 需要定期地更换电池,使得无线网络的使用更困难并且维修费很昂贵。没人愿意总是要定期地更换大楼中成百上千的电池。
无线传感器网络要得到充分实现,就得在数字通讯(communication: exchange) 和能量供应上淘汰使用电线。要想做到这点的话就得找到真正地无需电池和电线的解决方法,就是直接应用环境中已经存在的能源。为了使推广无线传感器网络更容易(facilitate: easy) ,格林·皮克己研制出了一种超低能量(ultra-low-power )通信技术,它能够利用光、运动(motion: movement) 和振动(vibration: oscillation) 这样的环保能源。这个技术采用车载电源(on-board power) 管理电路和计算机软件来监控能源的收集,且最有效地利用采集到的能源,使传感器在不依靠电池的环境中得以应用。
无线传感器网络在办公室和家中的应用(deploy: expand) 将对日常生活有很大的影响(enormous: huge, massive) ,它能帮助人们建立更加智慧的世界,这能够使能源循环(recycle: circulate) 利用并被充分地利用(utilize: use) 。这些装有先进的(advanced: progressive) 无线传感功能的平台(platform: platform) ,能使我们更好地掌控我们的生活、家庭和环境,创建(create: produce, invent) 一个真正的互相连接的世界,能使人们生活在更加舒适(comfortable: pleasant,. easy )、安全和干净的环境中。
 
Passage Five
55. C
"The horse was cleverly picking up on tiny, unintentional bodily and facial signals given out not only by his trainer, but also by the audience." 可知,从"聪明汉斯"身上,心理学家发现它能注意到人们发出的信号。故答案选C
56. D
根据第一段,莱特博士由于汉斯的影响,开始研究领犬员对于警犬的影响。可知,他们认同汉斯的影响,故答案选D
57. D
由第二段中"And also that in two cases those scents would be marked by pieces of red paper." 可知,一些目标气味上可能有些特殊标记。故答案选D
58. C
由第二段中"While the sheer number of false alerts struck Dr. Lit as fascinating, it was where they took place that was of greatest interest. "可知,在莱特博士看来,实验最显著的一点是错误警示的数量。故答案选C
59. A
根据第四段内容,可以看出狗会受到领犬员的肢体动作所影响。故答案选A
60. B
根据最后一段中的内容可知,作者认为这项研究需要在现实中引起我们的关注。A项明显排除, C项和D项文章中并没有提及。故答案选B
 
[参考译文]
20 世纪早期,有一匹叫"聪明汉斯"的马,它善于算数( count: figure) 和展现其它一些令人惊叹的(impressive: affecting) 智力行为。这样的事情持续了几年后,心理学家发现虽然汉斯真的很聪明,但并不是人们预测的那样聪明。汉斯不仅能聪明地注意到(pick up: find) 训练师发出的微小的(tiny: small)、无意的(unintentional: unconscious) 身体和面部信号,也会受到观众的影响。意识到了"聪明汉斯"的影响,加利福尼亚大学的丽萨·莱特和她的同事开始思考( wonder: question) ,是否专业的(professional: vocational) 领犬员的信号会影响到警犬搜寻毒品和爆炸物的结果。显然地(remarkably: considerably) ,莱特博士发现,结果的确如此。
莱特博士要求18 位专业领犬员和他们的狗完成一个简短的(brief: curt, short) 搜寻任务。搜索开始前,领犬员被告知(inform: tell)在一些搜寻区域可能包括(contain: include) 多达三个目标气味,有两处的目标气味由一些红色的纸片标注。可是领犬员并没被告知搜寻区域内并没有毒品和爆炸物的气味(scent: smell)。这样这些团队的侦查结果一定会不正确。结果显示(reveal: prove, expose) , 144 处搜索区域中,只有21 处是干净的,也就是没有警示(alert: alarm, warn) 。其他地方都至少有一个警示。总计,这些国队找到了225个警示。但是误报的数量使莱特博士很是着迷,这就是最令人感兴趣的地方。
当领犬员看到一个纸片时,据称( allegedly: purportedly, said to be) 这是目标的标注,领犬员就会说他们的狗发现了警示。人类领犬员不仅仅会受到自标的困扰,同时会传递困扰的信号给那些容易受到影响的动物。对于那些混乱的暗示(metaphor: parabole) ,收到领犬员无意识的信号后,狗就会汪汪地叫起来。
这种现象对于现实生活有多大影响还不清楚,但一定有影响。例如,如果一个领犬员无意识地预测出(profile: outline) 机场中正被探测犬进行嗅探(sniff: smell, scent)毒品或者爆炸物的人存在危险时,错误判断的概率就会大量(abound: teem with, be imbued with) 出现。这不仅给无辜的(innocent: guiltiness) 旅客带来不好的影响,也会分散追捕罪犯人员的注意力。
 
Part IV Cloze (15 points)
61. B
解析:especially,特别地。本题指“特别”是那些濒危物种。
62. C
解析:At one time 曾经,一度。表示过去曾经做过某事,从后面句子中的displayed 一词判断,句子是在描述过去的事情。答案应选C
63. A
解析:association 协会,公会。institution 团体,机构。foundation 基金会。corporations 公司,企业。故答案选A
64. C
解析:Along 顺着,沿着。Toward 向,朝着。Through 穿过,通过。among ……中。这里是列举动物园要面临的挑战。故答案选C
65. C
解析:limited 有限的。professional 职业的,专业的。excessive 过度的,过多的。sufficient足够的,充分的。故答案选C
66. B
解析:这里指许多旧的动物园都翻新了。older 旧的,老的。故答案选B
67. B
解析:improvement 改进,改善。management 管理,经营。achievement 成就。assessment评价,评估。这里指动物园改进的地方。故答案选B
68. D
解析:with 在此处是表示附属关系,以……手段做某事的意思。故答案选D
69. A
解析:这里指减少施加给动物的压力,故答案选A
70. A
解析:单词zoo 指代动物园中的动物。sustained 持续的。selected 选择的。promising 允诺的。surviving 幸存的。故答案选A
71. D
解析:the wild 野外。本题是说把动物释放到野外。故答案选D
72. B
解析:save... from 挽救。restrain...from 限制,控制。shelter...from 遮蔽,庇护。exempt...from免除,豁免。这里指挽救搬危物种。故答案选B
73. D
解析:attribute to ……归因于。oppose to 反对。related to……有关refer to 指代。这里指与动物展览有关的发展项目。故答案选D
74. A
解析:as if 犹如,好像as 随着。so that以便。so 因此,因而。这里指随着大象群体的移动。故答案选A
75. C
解析:in search of 寻找。in honor of 纪念,向……致敬in charge of 负责。in support of支持,拥护。故答案选C
 
Key to 2011 English Test
                          Paper Two
 
Part I Translation (20 points)
Section A
[参考译文]
在过去,我们都认为确保核安全的核技术和知识已经发展到了一定水平,这使得发生重大核事故的可能性几乎不存在,并且即使发生了核事故,现场状况也是可以为核工程师所掌控的。但是,现实证明,在处理核能的时候你是要非常小心的(怎么小心都不过分),我们还不确定日本核危机给我们留下了什么,但可以肯定的是,是时候要重新审视我们的行为了,而且要做出更多的努力来确保未来的核安全。
 
Section B
[参考译文]
With 5000-year cultural tradition, China undergoes many disasters but still remains vigorous. We should fully promote the custom, and learn and draw lessons from advanced civilization of the whole world, which is also understood by us. Only in this way, can Chinese culture get further development. In other word as I usually say, only through being open and tolerance, will our homeland become strong.
 
Part II Writing (15 points)
范文
How to Handle Stress
     The issue of pressure has attracted a lot of attention from the public. There are many factors that bring us a lot of presses. For example, with the development of social economic, the requirements of society to people has become more and more large, which leave us endless pressure.
     There are several healthy ways to reduce our stress. In the first place, we can take physical exercise, such as playing basketball, playing badminton, and running. In the second place, we can listen to music or read humorous stories and so on in our free time. Last but not the least; we can relieve the pressure by talking with our families and friends.
As for me, I usually take physical exercise to reduce the pressure, I always go to play basketball after work, which makes me ease my pressure. Sometimes, I also watch some TV programs and films, which make me very relaxed. In these ways, I can overcome stressful situations. I believe that I will have less and less pressure in the future.